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Sect. I. Mithridates, at twelve years old, ascends the

throne of Pontus. He seizes Cappadocia and Bithynia,

baving first expelled their kings. The Romans re-establish

them. He causes all the Romans in Aha Minor to be put

10 the sword in one day. First war of the Romans with

Mithridates, who had made himself mafter of Asia Minor,

and Greece, where he had taken Athens. Sylla is charged

with this war. He besieges and retakes Athens. He gains

three great battles against the generals of Mithridates. He

grants that prince peace in the fourth year of the war. Li

brary of Athens, in which were the works of Aristotle.

Sylla causes it to be carried to Rome


11. Second war againf Mithridates, under Murena, of only

thrée years

duration. Mithridates prepares to reneru the

He concludes a treaty with Sertorius. Tbird war

with Mithridates. Lucullus consul sent against him. He

obliges him to raise the firge of Cyzicum, and defeats his

troops. He gains a compleat victory over him, and reduces

him to fly into. Pontus. Tragical end of the fibers and

wives of Mithridates. He endeavours to retire 1o Tigranis

hi fon in-law. Lucullus regulates the affairs of Afia 76

III. Lucullus causes war to be declared with Tigranes, and

marches againt him. Vanity and ridiculous fill-ufficiency

of that prince. He lojes a great battle. Lucullus takes

Tigranocerta, capital of Armenia. He gains a second

vittory over the joint-forces of Tigranes and Mithridates.

Mutiny and revolt in the army of Lucullus


IV. Mithridates, taking advantage of the difcord which had

arisen in the Roman army, recovers all his dominions.

Pompey is chosen to succeed Lucullas. He overthrows

Mithridates in several battles. The latter flies in vain to

Tigranes bis fan-in-law for refuge, who is engaged in a

war with his own son. Pompey marches into Armenia

uguinfTigranes, who comes to him and Juurrenders kimo


Ssct. I. Ptolemæus Auletes had been placed upon the throne

of Egypt in the room of Alexander. He is declared the

friend and ally of the Roman people by the credit of Cæsar

and Pompey, which be purchases at a very great price.

In consequence he loads bis subjects with imposts. He is

expelled the throne. The Alexandrians make his daughter


He goes to Rome, and by money obtains the

voices of the heads of the commonwealth for his re-establish-

ment. He is opposed by an oracle of the Sibyl's; not with-

ftanding which, Gabinius fets him upon the throne by force

of arms, where he remains till his death. The famous

Cleopatra, and her brother very young, succeed him

II. Pothinus and Achillas, ministers of the young king,

expel Cleopatra. She raises troops to re-establish herself.

Pompey, after having been overthrown at Pharsalia, retires

into Egypt. He is alahinated there. Cæfar, who pur-

sued bim, arrives at Alexandria, where he is informed of

his death, which he seems to lament. He endeavours to re

concile the brother and fifter, and for that purpose sends for

Cleopatra, of whom he foon becomes enamoured. Great com-

motions arise at Alexandria, and several battles are fought

between the Egyptians and Cæsar's troops, wherein the

latter have almost always the advantage. The king,

having been drowned in flying after a fea-fight, all Egypt

fubmits to Cæfar. He sets Cleopatra, with her young

brother, upon the throne, and returns to Rome 134

III. Cleopatra caufes her young brother to be put to death,

and reigns alone. The death of Julius Cæfar having made
way for the Triumvirate formed between Antony, Lepidus,
and young Cæfar, called allo Ostavius, Cleopatra de-

i stares herself for the Triumvirs. She goes to Antony. at

Parfus, gains an absolute ascendant over him, and brings

bim with her to Alexandria. Antony goes to Rome, where he Spouses Ottavia, He abandons himself again to Cleopatra, and after some expeditions returns to Alexandria, which he enters in triumph. He there celebrates the coronation of Cleopatra and her children, Open rupture between Cafar and Antony. The latter repudiates Etavia. The two fleets put to sea. Cleopatra determines to follow Antony, Battle of Allium. Cleopatra flies, and draws Antony'after her, Casar's victory is compleat. He advances some time after against Alexandria, which makes no long resistance. Tragical death of Antony and Cleopatra. Egypt is reduced into a province of the Roman empire

145 Conclufion of the Antient History

. 170 Chronological Table



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THIS twenty-first book contains the conclufion of the history

of Syracuse. It may be divided into three parts. The first includes the long reign of Hiero II. The second, the fhort reign of his grandion Hieronymus, the troubles of Syracuse consequential of it, and the fiege and taking of that city by Marcellus. The third is an exact abridgment of the history of Syracuse, with some reflections upon the government and characier of the Syracusans, and upon Archimedes.


ARTICLE I. SECT. I. HIERO the Second chofen captain-general by the Syra

cufans, and soon after appointed king. He makes an alliance

with the Romans in the beginning of the first Punick war. pa) IERO II. was descended from the family of Gem

lon, who had formerly reigned in Syracuse. As

his mother was of slavilh extraction, his father Hieroclės, according to the barbarous custom of those times, caused him to be exposed soon after his birth ; believing that the infant dishonoured the nobility of his race. If Justin's fabulous account may be believed, the bees nourished him several days with their honey. The oracle declaring that fo fingular an event was a certain presage of his future greatnefs, Hierocles caused him to be brought back to his house, and took all poffible care of his education.

The child improved as much from the pains taken to form him, as could be expected. He diftinguished himself early from all those of his years, by his address in military exercises, and his courage in battle. He acquired the citeem of Pyrrhus, and received several rewards from his own hands. He was VOL. VIII.


of re) A, M. 3700. Ant. J. C, 304. Julin, lo xxiii. c. 4.

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