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an eclectic point of view between the AEsthetic of content and the AEsthetic of form. The author, however, is wrong in believing he has passed over “no writer of the first rank "; he has passed over not only writers but some important movements of ideas, and in general he shows insufficient knowledge of the literature of the Latin races. Another general history of AEsthetic in English is the first volume of The Philosophy of the Beautiful, being Outlines of the History of Æsthetics, by William Knight, London, Murray, 1895 : it consists mainly of a rich collection of extracts and abridgements of ancient and modern books treating of AEsthetic. In this respect the most noteworthy chapters are those on Holland, Great Britain and America (Io-13); the second volume, published in 1898, has in an appendix, pp. 251-281, notices upon AEsthetic in Russia and Denmark. Another recent publication is George Saintsbury's A History of Criticism and Literary Taste in Europe from the Earliest Times to the Present Day ; vol. i., Edinburgh and London, 1900, concerning classical and mediaeval criticism ; vol. ii., 1902, criticism from the Renaissance to end of the eighteenth century: vol. iii., 1904, modern criticism. The writer of this History, equally skilled in literature and innocent of philosophy, has thought it possible to exclude aesthetic science in the strict sense, “the more transcendental AEsthetic, those ambitious theories of Beauty and artistic pleasure in general which seem so noble and fascinating until we discover them to be but cloud-appearances of Juno,” and to limit his treatise to “lofty Rhetoric and Poetic, to the theory and practice of Criticism and literary taste ’’ (book i. ch. 1). Thus is produced a book instructive in many ways but wholly deficient in method and definite object. What is lofty Rhetoric and Poetic, the theory of Criticism and literary taste, if not Æsthetic pure and simple 2 how can the history of these be composed without due notice of metaphysical AEsthetic and other manifestations whose interaction and development are the fabric of history itself 2 Perhaps Saintsbury hoped to be able to write a History of Criticism as distinct from that of AEsthetic ; if that be the case, he has been unsuccessful in writing either one or the other. Cf. La Critica, ii. (1904), pp. 59-63. The generosity of the Hungarian Academy of Science has enabled us to handle the History of AEsthetic (Az AEsthetika torténete) of Bela Janosi, Budapesth, 1899–1901, in three volumes; the first volume treats the AEsthetic of Greece ; the second, of AEsthetic from the Middle Ages to Baumgarten; the third, from Baumgarten to the present day. For us it is a book sealed with seven seals, save for reviews which have appeared in the Deutsche Litteraturzeitung of Berlin, August 25, 1900, July 12, 1902, and May 2, 1903. Amongst Latin countries, France has no special history of AEsthetic, for this title cannot be given to the portion of the second volume (pp. 311-570) of the work by Ch. Levéque, La Science du beau (Paris, 1862), under the heading Examen des principaux systèmes d’esthétique anciens et modernes, where eight chapters are devoted to an exposition of the theories of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus and St. Augustine, Hutcheson, André and Baumgarten, Reid, Kant, Schelling and Hegel. Spain, on the other hand, possesses the work of Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de las idéas estéticas en España, 2nd ed., Madrid, 1890– 1901 (5 vols., variously distributed amongst the 1st ed., 1883– 1891, and the 2nd), which is not restricted, as the title suggests, to Spain alone or to AEsthetic alone but, as the author observes in his preface (i. pp. xx-xxi), includes the metaphysical disquisitions on the beautiful, the speculations of mystics on the beauty of God and on love ; the theories of art scattered through the pages of philosophers; the aesthetic considerations found in treatises upon individual arts (Poetics and Rhetoric, works on painting, architecture, etc.); and, finally, ideas enunciated by artists concerning their own particular arts. This work is of capital importance on everything to do with Spanish authors, and also in its general part contains good treatments of matters generally passed over by historians. Menendez y Pelayo inclines to metaphysical idealism, yet seems not disinclined to welcome elements from other systems, even empirical theories: in our opinion this vagueness has an unfortunate effect on the work as a whole. Some years ago Professor V. Spinazzola announced the forthcoming publication of a course of lectures given by Francesco de Sanctis in Naples in 1845 on Storia della critica da Aristotele ad Hegel. For the history of Æsthetic in Italy cf. Alfredo Rolla, Storia delle idee estetiche in Italia, Turin, 1904; on which see Croce, Problemi di estetica, pp. 401-415.
We need take no notice of the historical remarks or chapters that generally stand at the beginning of treatises on AEsthetic ; the most important occur in the volumes of Solger, Hegel and Schleiermacher. A general history of AEsthetic, from the rigorous point of view of the principle of Expression, has not been attempted before the present work.
For the bibliography down to the end of the eighteenth century, Sulzer's Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, 2nd ed., with additions by von Blankenburg, Leipzig, 1792, in four volumes, is practically complete and is an inexhaustible mine of information. For the nineteenth century much material is collected by C. Mills Gayley and Fred Newton Scott in An Introduction to the Methods and Materials of Literary Criticism. The Bases in AEsthetics and Poetics, Boston, 1899. Besides Sulzer, we may mention aesthetic dictionaries by Gruber, Wörterbuch z. Behuf d. Asth. d. schönen Künste, Weimar, 1810 : Jeithles, Asthetisches Lexikon, vol. i. A-K, Vienna, 1835 : Hebenstreit, Encyklopädie d. Asthetik, 2nd ed., Vienna, 1848.
The following notes contain for the convenience of the student several books which the author has not been able to see.
I. Concerning ancient AEsthetic no better or more comprehensive work can be found than the Geschichte der Theorie der Kunst bei den Alten, by Ed. Müller, Breslau, 1831–1837, 2 vols. For inquiries concerning the Beautiful special reference should be made to Julius Walter, Die Geschichte der Asthetik im Alterthum ihren begrifflichen Entwicklung mach, Leipzig, 1893. See also Em. Egger, Essai sur l'histoire de la critique chez les Grecs, 2nd ed., Paris, 1886: Zimmermann, Bk. I. : Bosanquet, ch. ii.-v. and Saintsbury, vol. i.
Of the innumerable special monographs: for Plato's AEsthetic see Arn. Ruge, Die platonische Asthetik, Halle, 1832 : for Aristotle's, Döring, Die Kunstlehre des Aristoteles, Jena, 1876 : C. Bénard, L’Esthétique d'Aristote et de ses successeurs, Palis, 1890 : S. H. Butcher, Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, 3rd ed., London, 1902. For Plotinus, E. Vacherot, Histoire critique de l'école d’Alexandrie, Paris, 1846: E. Brenning, Die Lehre vom Schönen bei Plotin im Zusammenhang seines Systems dargestellt, Göttingen, 1864. On the Ars Poetica of Horace, A. Viola, L'arte poetica di Orazio nella critica italiana e straniera, 2 vols. Naples, I901–1907.
For the history of ancient Psychology see H. Siebeck, Geschichte der Psychologie, 188o : A. E. Chaignet, Histoire de la psychologie des Grecs, Paris, 1887 : L. Ambrosi, La psicologia dell’ immaginazione mella storia della filosofia, Rome, 1898. For the history of the philosophy of language see H. Steinthal, Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft bei den Griechen und Römern mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Logik, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1890–1891, 2 vols.
II. For the aesthetic ideas of St. Augustine and early Christian authors see Menendez y Pelayo, op. cit. pp. 193-266. For Thomas Aquinas, L. Taparelli, Delle ragioni del bello secondo la dottrina di san Tommaso d’Aquino (in Civiltà cattolica for 1859–1860): P. Vallet, L'Idée du beau dans la philosophie de St. Thomas d'Aquin, 1883 : M. de Wulf, Études historiques sur l'esthétique de St. Thomas, Louvain, 1896.
For the literary doctrines of the Middle Ages see D. Comparetti, Virgilio nel medio evo, 2nd ed. Florence, 1893, vol. i., and G. Saintsbury, op.cit., vol. i. pp. 369-486. For the early Renaissance see K. Vossler, Poetische Theorien in d. italien. Frührenaissance, Berlin, 1900. For the Poetics of the high Renaissance see J. E. Spingarn, History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, with special reference to the influence of Italy, New York, 1899 (Italian trans. with corrections and additions, Bari, 1905). See also F. de Sanctis, Storia della letteratura italiana, Naples, 1870, passim.
For the traditions of Platonic and neo-Platonic ideas in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, for best and fullest information see Menendez y Pelayo, op. cit., vol. i. partii. and vol. ii. For Italian treatises on beauty and love see Michele Rosi, Saggi sui trattati d'amore del cinquecento, Recanati, 1899, and F. Flamini, Il cinquecento, Milan, Vallardi, N.D., ch. iv. pp. 378-381. For Tasso see Alfredo Giannini, Il “ Minturno ” di T. Tasso, Ariano, 1899 : see also E. Proto in Rass. crit. lett. ital. vi. (Naples, 19oI) pp. 127-145. For Leone Ebreo see Edm. Solmi, Benedetto Spinoza e L. E., studio su una fonte italiana dimenticata dello spinozismo, Modena, 19o3 : cf. G. Gentile in Critica, ii. pp. 313-319. On J. C. Scaliger see Eug. Lintilhac, Un Coup d'Etat dans la république des lettres : Jules César Scaliger, fondateur du classicisme cent ans avant Boileau (in the Nouv. Revue, 189o, vol. lyiv. pp. 333-346, 528-547). On Fracastoro, Giuseppe Rossi, Girolamo Fracastoro in relazione all' aristotelismo e alla scienza nel Rinascimento, Pisa, 1893. On Castelvetro, Ant. Fusco, La poetica di Ludovico Castelvetro, Naples, 19o4. On Patrizzi, Oddone Zenatti, Fr. Patrizzi, Orazio Ariosto, e Torquato Tasso, etc. (Verona, per le nozze Morpurgo-Franchetti, N.D.).
III. For this period offerment see H. von Stein, Die Entstehung der neueren Asthetik, Stuttgart, 1886: K. Borinski, Die Poetik der Renaissance und die Anfànge der litterarischen Kritik in Deutschland, Berlin, 1886 (esp. the last chapter): also same author's Baltasar Gracian und die Hofliteratur in Deutschland, Halle a. S., 1894: B. Croce, I trattatisti italiani del Concettismo e B. Gracian, Naples, 1899 (in Atti dell' Acc. Pont. vol. Xxix., reprinted in Problemi di estetica, pp. 3o9-345) : Elizabethan Critical Essays, edited with an introduction by G. Gregory Smith, Oxford, 19o4, 2 vols. : Critical Essays of the Seventeenth Century, edited by J. E. Spingarn, Oxford, 19o8, 2 vols. : Leone Donati, J. J. Bodmer und die italienische Litteratur (in the vol. J. J. Bodmer, Denkschrift z. C. C. Geburtstag, Zürich, 19oo, pp. 241-312): see also Probl. di estetica, pp. 371-38o.
On Bacon see K. Fischer, Franz Baco von Verulam, Leipzig, 1856 (2nd ed. 1875), cf. P. Jacquinet, Fr. Baconis in re litteraria iudicia, Paris, 1863. On Gravina, Em. Reich, G. V. Gravina als Asthetiker (in the Trans. of the Viennese Academy, vol. cxx. 189o): B. Croce, Di alcuni giudizi sul Gravina considerato come estetico, Florence, 19o1 (in Miscellanea d'Ancona, pp. 456-464), reprinted in Probl. di est. pp. 36o-37o. On Du Bos, Morel, Etude sur l'abbé du Bos, Paris, 1849 : P. Petent, J. B. Dubos, Tramelan, 19o2. On Bouhours, Doncieux, Un jésuite homme de lettres au XVII° siècle, Paris, 1886. On the Bouhours-Orsi controversy, F. Fottano, Una polemica nel settecento, in Ricerche letterarie, Leghorn, I897, pp. 313-332 : A. Boeri, Una contesa letteraria franco-italiana nel secolo XVIII, Palermo, 19oo (cf. Giorn. stor. lett. ital. xxxvi. pp. 255-256) : B. Croce, Varietà di storia
dell' estetica, §§ 1-2, in Rass. crit. lett. ital. cit., vi. 1901, pp. 115-126, reprinted in Probl. di est. pp. 346-359.
IV. On Cartesianism in literature see É. Krantz, L’Esthétique de Descartes étudiée dans les rapports de la doctrine cartésienne avec la littérature classique française au XVIII" siècle, Paris, 1882; See also the chapter on André, pp. 311-341, and the introduction by V. Cousin to the CEuvres philosophiques du p. André, Paris, 1843 : on Boileau, Borinski, Poetik d. Renaissance, c. 6, pp. 314329: J. Brunetière, L’Esthétique de B. in Revue des Deux Mondes, June 1, 1899.
On the English intellectualist aestheticians see Zimmermann, op. cit. pp. 273-3ol. ; also von Stein, op. cit. pp. 185-216. On Shaftesbury and Hutcheson see esp. Gid. Spicker, Die Philosophie d. Grafen v. Shaftesbury, Freiburg i. B., 1872, part iv. on art and literature, pp. 196-233 : T. Fowler, S. and Hutcheson, London, 1882: William Robert Scott, Francis Hutcheson, his life, teaching and position in the history of philosophy, Cambridge, 1900.
On Leibniz, Baumgarten and contemporary German writers see Th. W. Danzel, Gottsched und seine Zeit, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1855: H. G. Meyer, Leibnitz und Baumgarten als Begrinder der deutschen Asthetik, Inaugural Dissertation, Halle, 1874: Joh. Schmidt, L. und B., Halle, 1875 : Ém. Grucker, Histoire des doctrines littéraires et esthétiques en Allemagne (from Opitz to the Swiss writers), Paris, 1883 : Fr. Braitmaier, Geschichte der poetischen Theorie und Kritik von den Diskursen der Maler bis auf Lessing, Frauenfeld, 1888-1889. In the last-named book the first part treats of the beginning of Poetics and criticism in Germany, considered in their relation to the doctrines of classical, French and English writers: the second part treats of an attempt to found an aesthetic philosophy and theory of poetry upon a basis of Leibnitian-Wolffian psychology: which includes a long discussion of Baumgarten and quotations from two dissertations, Raabe's A. G. Baumgarten, Aestheticae in disciplinae formam parens et auctor, and Prieger's Anregung u. metaphysische Grundlage d. Asth. von A. G. Baumgarten, 1875 (cf. vol. ii. p. 2).
V. On Vico as aesthetician see B. Zumbini, Sopra alcuni principi di critica letteraria di G. B. V. (reprinted in Studi di letter. italiana, Florence, 1894, pp. 257-268): B. Croce, G. B. V. primo scopritore della scienza estetica, Naples, 1901 (reprinted from Flegrea, April 1901), incorporated in the present volume as has been mentioned already : see also G. Gentile in Rass. crit. della lett. ital., cit., vi. pp. 254-265 : E. Bertana, in Giorn. stor. lett. ital. xxxviii. pp. 449-451 : A. Martinazzoli, Intorno alle dottrine vichiane di ragion poetica, in Riv. di filos. e sc. aff. of Bologna, July 1902: also the reply of B. Croce, ibid., August 1902 : Giovanni Rossi, Il pensiero di G. B. V. intorno alla natura della lingua e all usicio delle lettere, Salerno, 1901. The important