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position occupied by Vico in respect to AEsthetic had been remarked earlier by C. Marini, G. B. V. al cospetto del secolo XIX, Naples, 1852, c. 7, § Io. For the influence exercised by Vico, B. Croce, Per la storia della critica e storiografia letteraria, Naples, 1903 (in Atti d. Acc. Pont., vol. xxxiii.), pp. 7-8, 26-28 (reprinted in Probl. di est. pp. 423-425), and G. A. Borgese, Storia della critica romantica in Italia, Naples, 1905, passim.

On Vico's thought in general, as well as on his AEsthetic, see B. Croce, La filosofia di Giambattista Vico, Bari, 1911 : English translation by R. G. Collingwood, 1913. The copious literature concerning Vico is given by B. Croce in Bibliografia vichiana, Naples, 1904 (reprinted from Atti dell’ Acad. Pont. vol. xxxiv.), and Supplemento, ibid. 1907, and Secondo Supplemento, 191o (Atti cit., vols. xxxvii. and xli.).

VI. On the literary doctrines of Conti see G. Brognoligo, L' opera letteraria di A. Conti, in Arch. veneto, 1894, vol. i. pp. 152-209 : on Cesarotti, Vitt. Alemanni, Un filosofo delle lettere, vol. i. Turin, 1894 : on Pagano, B. Croce, Varietà di storia dell' estetica, § 3 ; Di alcuni estetici italiani della seconda metà del secolo XVIII, in Rass. crit. cit. vii. 1902, pp. 1-17 (reprinted in Probl. di est. pp. 381–450).

On the German aestheticians, in addition to the various general histories already quoted, see R. Sommer, Grundzüge einer Geschichte der deutschen Psychologie u. Asthetik von Wolff-Baumgarten bis Kant-Schiller, Würzburg, 1892. Greatly inferior is M. Dessoir, Geschichte d. neueren deutschen Psychologie, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1897 (the first half only is published, down to Kant exclusive).

On Sulzer, Braitmaier, op. cit. ii. pp. 55-71 : on Mendelssohn, ibid. pp. 72-279 : for Elias Schlegel, op. cit. i. p. 249 seqq. : on Mendelssohn see also Th. Wilh. Danzel, Gesammelte Aufsätze, Leipzig, Jahn, 1855, pp. 85-98: Kannegiesser, Stellung Mendelssohns in d. Gesch. d. Asth., 1868. On Riedel, K. F. Wize, F. J. Riedel u. seine Asthetik, Diss., Berlin, 1907. On Herder, Ch. Joret, H. et la renaissance littéraire en Allemagne au XVIII’ siècle, Paris, 1875 : R. Haym, H. nach seinem Leben u. seinen Werken, 2 vols., Berlin, 188o : G. Jacobi, H.’s und Kant's Asth., Leipzig, 1907. For the ideas of Hamann and Herder concerning the origins of poetry see Croce in Critica, ix. (1911), pp. 469-472. On the history of Linguistic, see Th. Benfey, Geschichte d. Sprachwissenschaft in Deutschland, Munich, 1869, introd. : H. Steinthal, Der Ursprung der Sprache im Zusammenhange mit d, letzen Fragen alles Wissens, eine Darstellung, Kritik und Fortentwicklung der vorziiglichsten Ansichten, 4th ed., Berlin, 1888.

VII. On Batteux see E. v. Danckelmann, Charles Batteux, sein Leben u. sein disthetisches Lehrgebäude, Rostock, 1902. On Hogarth, Burke and Home, Zimmermann, op. cit. pp. 223-273; Bosanquet, op. cit. pp. 202-2Io. On Home esp. J. Wohlgemuth, H. Home's Asthetik, Rostock, 1894: W. Neumann, Die Bedeutung Homes für d. Asthetik, u. sein Einfluss auf d. deutschen Asthetik, Halle, 1894. On Hemsterhuis, Ém. Grucker, François H., sa vie et ses acuvres, Paris, 1866.

On Winckelmann, Goethe, W. u. sein Jahrhundert, 1805 (in Werke, ed. Goedeke, vol. xxxi.): C. Justi, W. u. seine Zeitgenossen, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1898. A criticism of Winckelmann's theory, by H. Hettner, appeared in the Revue Moderne, 1866. On Mengs, Zimmermann, op. cit. pp. 338-355. On Lessing, Th. Wilh. Danzel, G. E. Lessing, sein Leben und seine Werke, Leipzig, 1849–1853: Kuno Fischer, L. als Reformator d. deutschen Litteratur, Stuttgart, 1881 : Ém. Grucker, Lessing, Paris, 1891 : Erich Schmidt, Lessing, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1899 : K. Borinski, Lessing, Berlin, I900.

On Spallettisee B. Croce, War., cit., § 3 (Probl. d. est. pp. 392-398). On Meier, Hirth and Goethe, Danzel, Goethe und die Weimarsche Runstfreunde in ihrem Verhältniss z. Winckelmann, in Gesamm. Aufs. pp. 118-145. On Goethe's AEsthetic esp. see Wilh. Bode, Goethes Asthetik, Berlin, 1901.

VIII. Critical expositions of Kant's AEsthetic are very numerous even in Italy: for example, O. Colecchi, Questioni filosofiche, Naples, 1843, vol. iii. : C. Cantoni, E. Kant, Milan, 1884, vol. iii. In German, esp. H. Cohen, Kants Begrindung der Asthetik, Berlin, 1889: also an important chapter in Sommer, op. cit. pp. 337-352 ; a sufficient representative of a host of others is the elaborate work of Victor Basch, Essai critique sur l'esthétique de Kant, Paris, 1896. See also, on an Italian trans. of the Kr. d. Urth., B. Croce in Critica, v. (1907), pp. 160-164.

For Kant's lectures and the historical antecedents of his Critique of Judgment (besides the dissertations of H. Falkenheim, Die Entstehung der kantischen Asthetik, Heidelberg, 1890, and Rich. Grundmann, Die Entwickel d. Asth. Kants, Leipzig, 1893) see the exhaustive work of Otto Schlapp, Kant's Lehre vom Genie wnd die Entstehung d. Kritik d. Urtheilskraft, Göttingen, 1901.

IX. For the whole of this period, beside the general histories already quoted which treat of it in great detail, see Th. Wilh. Danzel, Uber den gegenwärtigen Zustand d. Philosophie d. Kunst w. ihre nāchste Aufgabe (in the Zeitschr. f. Phil. of Fichte, 1844– 1845, and reprinted in Gesammelte Aufsatze, pp. I-84): this treats of Kant, Schiller, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and, more particularly, of Solger, pp. 51-84: Herm. Lotze, Geschichte der Asthetik in Deutschland, Munich, 1868 (in the coll. “History of the Sciences in Germany,” published by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Munich in Bavaria): first book, history of general points of view from Baumgarten to the Herbartian school : second book, history of individual fundamental aesthetic concepts: third book, contributions to the history of the theory of the arts: Ed. v. Hartmann, Die deutsche Asthetik s. Kant (first part, historicocritical), Berlin, 1886, divided into two books. The first book discusses the doctrine of the chief aestheticians and, after an introduction on the foundation of philosophical aesthetic by Kant, treats of the AEsthetic of the content, divided into that of abstract idealism (Schelling, Schopenhauer, Solger, Krause, Weisse, Lotze) : of concrete idealism (Hegel, Trahndorff, Schleiermacher, Deutinger, Oersted, Vischer, Zeising, Carrière, Schasler); of the AEsthetic of feeling (Kirchmann, Wiener, Horwicz); the AEsthetic of form, subdivided into abstract formalism (Herbart, Zimmermann), and concrete formalism (Köstlin, Siebeck). The second book is concerned with the more important special problems. On the AEsthetic of Schiller specially see, amongst numerous monographs, Danzel, Schillers Briefwechsel mit Körner, in Ges. Aufs. pp. 227-244: G. Zimmermann, Versuch einer schillerschen Asthetik, Leipzig, 1889: F. Montargis, L’Esthétique de Schiller, Paris, 1890 : the chapter in Sommer, op. cit. pp. 365-432 : V. Basch, La Poétique de Schiller, Paris, 1901. On the AEsthetic of Romanticism, R. Haym, Die romantische Schule : ein Beitrag 2. Geschichte d. deutschen Geistes, Berlin, 1870 (cf. on Tieck, book i.; on Novalis, book iii. : for criticism of the two Schlegels, bk. ii. and bk. iii. ch. 5): N. M. Pichtos, Die Asthetik Aug. W. v. Schlegel in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung, Berlin, 1893. On the AEsthetic of Fichte, G. Tempel, Fichtes Stellung z. Kunst, Metz, 1901. On the AEsthetic of Hegel, Danzel, Uber d. Asthetik der hegelschen Philosophie, Hamburg, 1844: R. Haym, Hegel u. seine Zeit, Berlin, 1857, pp. 433-443 : J. S. Kedney, Hegel's AEsthetics : a critical exposition, Chicago, 1885 : Kuno Fischer, Hegels Leben u. Werke, Heidelberg, 1898–1901, chs. 38-42, pp. 81 I-947: J. Kohn, Hegels Asthetik in Zeitschrift für Philosophie, 1902, vol. 120, fasc. ii. : see also B. Croce, Ció che é vivo e ció che & morto della filosofia di Hegel, Bari, 1907, ch. 6; Engl. tr. by D. Ainslie, 1915.

X. For the AEsthetic of Schopenhauer, Fr. Sommerlad, Darstellung u. Kritik d, disth. Grundanschauungen Schopenhauers, Diss., Giessen, 1895: Ed. v. Mayer, Schopenhauers Asthetik u. inr Verháltniss 2. d. disth. Lehren Kants u. Schellings, Halle, 1897: Ett. Zoccoli, L'estetica di A. Sch. : propedeutica all' estetica Wagneriana, Milan, 1901 : G. Chialvo, L’estetica di A. Sch., saggio esplicativocritico, Rome, 1905.

For the AEsthetic of Herbart, beside Zimmermann, op. cit. pp. 754-804, see O. Hostinsky, Herbarts Asthetik in ihrer grundlegenden Theilen quellenmässig dargestellt u. erläutert, HamburgLeipzig, 1891.

XI. Of the AEsthetic of Schleiermacher, the fullest treatment is given by Zimmermann, pp. 609-634, and von Hartmann, pp. I56-169.

XII. For the history of the theory of Language, beside Benfey, op. cit. introd., see Max. Leop. Loewe, Historiae criticae grammatices veniversalis seu philosophicae lineamenta, Dresden, 1839 : A. F. Pott, W. v. Humboldt und die Sprachwissenschaft, introd. to the reprint of Humboldt's Verschiedenheit d. menschl. Sprachbaues (2nd ed., Berlin, 188o, vol. i.).

On Humboldt see esp. Steinthal, Der Ursprung der Sprache, pp. 59-81, and Pott's introd. cit., Wilh. v. Humboldt u. die Sprachzevissenschaft.

XIII. For this period, treated with unnecessary fulness, see von Hartmann, op. cit. bk. i. : more concisely by Menendez y Pelayo, vol. iv. (1st ed.), parti. chs. 6-8.

For the doctrine of the modifications of beauty see Zimmermann, op. cit. pp. 715-744 : Schasler, op. cit. SS 517-546 : Bosanquet, op. cit. ch. I4, pp. 393-44o: in greater detail, v. Hartmann, bk. ii. parti. pp. 363-46I.

For the history of the Sublime see also F. Unruh, Der Begriff des Erhabenen seit Kant, Königsberg, 1898. For Humour see B. Croce, Dei vari significanti della parola umorismo e del suo uso nella critica letteraria, in the Journal of Comparative Literature of New York, 19o3, fasc. iii. (reprinted in Probl. di est. pp. 275286): F. Baldensperger, Les Définitions de l'humour, in Etudes d'hist. litt. Paris, 19o7. For the history of the concept of the Graceful, F. Torraca, La grazia secondo il Castiglione e secondo lo Spencer (in Morandi, Antol. della critica lett. ital. 2nd ed., Città di Castello, 1885, pp. 44o-444): F. Braitmaier, op. cit. ii. pp. 166-167.

XIV. For the history of AEsthetic in France during the nineteenth century there is nothing so good as Menendez y Pelayo, vol. iii. partii. chs. 3-9 ; ibid. chs. I-2 give full information concerning AEsthetic in England.

For AEsthetic in Italy in the first half of the nineteenth century, Karl Werner, Idealistische Theorien des Schönen in d. italienischen Philosophie des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, Vienna, 1884 (from Trans. of the Imperial and Royal Viennese Academy). On Rosmini see esp. P. Bellezza, Antonio Rosmini e la grande questione letteraria del secolo XIX (in the collection Per Antonio Rosmini nel primo centenario, Milan, I897, vol. i. pp. 364-385). On Gioberti, Ad. Faggi, Vinc. Gioberti esteta e letterato, Palermo, 19oI (from the Atti della R. Accad. di Palermo, s. iii. vol. vi.). On Delfico, G. Gentile, Dal Genovesi al Galluppi, Naples, 19o3, ch. ii. On Leopardi, E. Bertana in Giorn. stor. lett. ital. xli. pp. 193283 : R. Giani, L' estetica nei pensieri di G. Leopardi, Turin, 19o4 (cf. G. Gentile in Critica, ii. pp. 144-147). See also a book quoted by A. Rolla and B. Croce, loc. cit., containing a catalogue of Italian books on AEsthetic of the nineteenth century (Probl. di est. pp. 4oI-415).

On the theories of the Italian Romanticists, F. De Sanctis, La poetica del Manzoni, in Scritti vari, ed. Croce, i. pp. 23-45 ; and the same author's La letteratura italiana nel secolo XIX, ed. Croce, Naples, 1897, on Tommaseo, pp. 233-243: on Cantù, Pp. 244-273: on Berchet, pp. 479-493 : on Mazzini, pp. 424-44I. On Mazzini esp. F. Ricitari, Concetto dell' arte e della critica letteraria nella mente di G. Mazzini, Catania, 1896. For all these see G. A. Borgese, Storia della critica romantica in Italia, cit.

XV. For the life of De Sanctis and the bibliography of his works see Scritti vari, ed. Croce, ii. pp. 267-3o8, also the volume In memoria di Fr. de S. edited by M. Mandalari, Naples, 1884.

On De Sanctis as literary critic, P. Villari, Commemorazione: A. C. de Meis, Commem., in the above-mentioned vol. In memoria : Marc Monnier in Revue des Deux Mondes, April I, 1884 : Pio Ferrieri, Fr. de S. e la critica letteraria, Milan, I888: B. Croce, La critica letteraria, Rome, 1896, ch. 5; Fr. de S. e i suoi critici recenti (in Atti dell' Accad. Pontan. vol. xxviii. reprinted in Scritti vari, append. ii. 3o9-352), and prefs. to vols. already quoted, La lett. ital. nel sec. XIX, and Scritti vari ; De Sanctis e Schopenhauer, in Atti della Pontaniana, xxxii. 19o2 : Enr. Cocchia, Il pensiero critico di Fr. de S. nell' arte e nella politica, Naples, 1899: G. A. Borgese, op. cit. last chapter and passim.

XVI. On the last phase of metaphysical AEsthetic, G. Neudecker, Studien z. Geschichte d. deutschen Asthetik s. Kant, Würzburg, 1878, which discusses and criticises more particularly Vischer (self-criticism), Zimmermann, Lotze, Köstlin, Siebeck, Fechner and Deutinger. On Zimmermann, von Hartmann, op. cit. pp. 267-3o4: Bonatelli, in Nuova Antologia, October 1867. On Lotze, Fritz Kogel, Lotzes Asthetik, Göttingen, 1886: A. Matragrin, Essai sur l'esthétique de Lotze, Paris, 19oI. On Köstlin, von Hartmann, pp. 3o4-317. On Schasler, see the same, pp. 248-252, also Bosanquet, pp. 414-424. On Hartmann, Ad. Faggi, Ed. H. e l'estetica tedesca, Florence, 1895. On Vischer see M. Diez, Fried. Vischer u. d. âsth. Formalismus, Stuttgart, 1889.

For French and English aestheticians, besides Menendez y Pelayo, op. cit., on Ruskin, see J. Milsand, L'Esthétique anglaise, étude sur J. Ruskin, Paris, 1864: R. de la Sizeranne, Ruskin et la religion de la beauté, 3rd ed., Paris, 1898; cf. part iii. On Fornari, V. Imbriani, Vito Fornari estetico (reprinted in Studi letterari e bizzarri e satiriche, ed. Croce, Bari, 19o7). On Tari see Nic. Gallo, Antonio Tari, studio critico, Palermo, 1884 : Croce, in Critica, v. (19o7), pp. 357-36I ; also in pref. to vol.: A. Tari, saggi di estetica e metafisica, Bari, 19Io.

XVII. For positivist AEsthetic see Menendez y Pelayo, op. cit. iv. (Ist ed.) vol. ii. pp. 12o-I36, 326-369 : N. Gallo, La scienza dell' arte, Turin, 1887, chs. 6-8, pp. 162-216.

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