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XVIII. On Kirchmann, von Hartmann, pp. 253-265. For various recent German aestheticians, Hugo Spitzer, Kritische Studien z. Asthet. der Gegenwart, Leipzig, 1897. On Nietzsche, Ettore G. Zoccoli, Fred. Nietzsche, Modena, 1898, pp. 268-344: Jul. Zeitler, Nietzsches Asthetik, Leipzig, 1900. On Flaubert, A. Fusco, La teoria dell' arte in G. F., Naples, 1907: cf. Critica, vi. (1908), pp. 125-134. For books on ^Esthetic published during the last decade of the nineteenth century see Luc. Arreat, Dix annees de philosophie, 1891-1900, Paris, 1901, pp. 74-116. A few remarks on contemporary AEsthetic are made by K. Groos in Die Philosophie im Beginn. des XXTM Jahrh., ed. by W. Windelband, Heidelberg, 1904-1905. For latest books on ^Esthetic see Critica, ed. B. Croce (Naples), from 1903 onward, which publishes reviews of them. There is also a review, started in 1906, published at Stuttgart (ed. F. Enke), Zeitschrift fiir Asthetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft, edited by Max Dessoir.

XIX. The history of particular problems is usually omitted, or, at best, erroneously treated in histories of ^Esthetic: for example, see the difficulty experienced by Ed. Muller, Gesch., cit., ii. pref. pp. vi-vii, in connecting his treatment of the history of Rhetoric with that of Poetics. Some writers attach Rhetoric to the individual arts or to artistic technique; others treat the doctrines of the modification of beauty and of natural beauty (in the metaphysical sense) as special problems; others, again, discuss the kinds or classifications in art in an incidental manner, without seeking to incorporate them in the principal aesthetic problem.

§ I. On the history of Rhetoric in the ancient sense see Rich. Volkmann, Die Rhetorik der Griechen und Rdmer in systematischer Vbersicht dargestellt, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1885, of capital importance: A. Ed. Chaignet, La Rhetorique et son histoire, Paris, 1888; rich in material, but ill-arranged and with the preconception that Rhetoric is still a defensible body of science. For special treatment see Ch. Benoist, Essai historique sur les premiers manuels d'invention oratoire, jusqu'd Aristote, Paris, 1846: Georg Thiele, Hermagoras, ein Beitrag z. Geschichte d. Rhetorik, Strasburg, 1893. There is no history of rhetoric in modern times. For criticism of Vives and other Spaniards see Menendez y Pelayo, op. cit. iii. pp. 211-300 (2nd ed.). For Patrizzi see B. Croce, F. Patrizzi e la critica della rettorica antica, in the vol. of Stmli in honour of A. Graf, Bergamo, 1903 (Probl. d. est. pp. 297-308).

For Rhetoric as theory of literary form in antiquity see Volkmann, op. cit. pp. 393-566: Chaignet, op. cit. pp. 413-539: also Egger, passim, and Saintsbury, bks. i. ii. For purposes of comparison see Paul Reynaud, La Rhetorique sanskrite exposie dans son developpement historique et ses rapports avec la rhetorique classique, Paris, 1884. For the Middle Ages, Comparetti, Virgilio nel media evo, vol. i., and Saintsbury, bk. iii. There is need for a work on modern Rhetoric in this sense also. For the form it assumed ultimately according to the theory of Grober see B. Croce, Di alcuni principi di sintassi e stilistica psicologiche del Grober, in Atti dell' Accad. Pontan. vol. xxix. 1899: K. Vossler, Literaturblatt fur germ. u. roman. Philologie, 1900, N.i.: B. Croce, Le categorie rettoriche e il prof. Grdber, in Flegrea, April 1900: K. Vossler, Positivismo e idealismo nella scienza del linguaggio, Ital. trans. Bari, 1908, pp. 48-61 (cf. Probl. d. est. pp. 143-171). Very incomplete observations on the history of the concept of metaphor are made by A. Biese, Philosophie d. Metaphorischen, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1893, pp. 1-16; but this book has the merit of calling attention to the importance of the views and influence of Vico.

§ 2. For the history of the literary kinds in antiquity see the works above quoted by Muller, Egger, Saintsbury, and the vast literature on Aristotle's Poetics. For comparison with Sanskrit poetics, Sylvain Levi, Le Thidtre indien, Paris, 1890, esp. pp. n152. For mediaeval poetry see esp. Gio. Mari, / trattati medievali di ritmica hit ma, Milan, 1899; and his recent edition of Poetica magistri Iohannis anglici, 1901.

For the history of the kinds under the Renaissance see principally Spingarn, op. cit. i. chs. 3-4; ii. ch. 2; iii. ch. 3. AJso Menendez y Pelayo, Borinski, Saintsbury, passim.

Special works: on Pietro Aretino, De Sanctis, Storia della letteratura italiana, ii. pp. 122-144: A. Graf, Attraverso il cinquecento, Turin, 1888, pp. 87-167: K. Vossler, P. A.'s kunstlerisches Bekenniniss, Heidelberg, 1901. On Guarini, V. Rossi, G. B. Guarini e il Pastor Fido, Turin, 1886, pp. 238-250. On Scaliger, Lintilhac, Un Coup d'Etat, cit. For the three unities, L. Morandi, Baretti contra Voltaire, 2nd ed., Citta di Castello, 1884: Breitinger, Les Unites d'Aristote avant le Cid de Corneille, 2nd ed., Geneva-Basle, 1895: J- Ebner, Beitrag z. einer Geschichte d. dramatischen Einheiten in Italien, Munich, 1898. On the Spanish polemic concerning comedy see A. Morel Tatio on the defenders of comedy and of the Arte nuevo, in the Bulletin Hispanique of Bordeaux, vols. iii. and iv.: on the dramatic theories see Arnaud, Les Theories dramatiques au XVII' siecle, I'tmle sur la vie et les cewires de I'abbi D'Aubignac, Paris, 1888: Paul Dupont, Un Poele philosophe au commencement du XVIII' siecle, Houdar de la Motte, Paris, 1898: Alfredo Galletti, Le teorie drammatiche e la Iragedia in Italia nel secolo XVIII, part i. 1700-1750, Cremona, 1901. On the history of French Poetics, F. Brunetiere, L'Evolution des genres dans I'histoire de la litttrature, Paris, 1890, vol. i. introd.: "L'evolution de la critique depuis la Renaissance jusqu'd nos jours." On that of English Poetics, Paul Hamelius, Die Kritik in d. engl. Literatur des XVII'" u. XVIII" Jahrh., Leipzig, 1897: also the well-filled chapter in Gayley-Scott, op. cit. pp. 382-422, the sketch of a book on the subject. For the romantic period see Alfred Michiels, Histoire des idies litteraires en France au XIX" siecle, et de leurs origines dans les siecles anterieures, 4th ed., Paris, 1863. For Italy see G. A. Borgese, op. cit.

§ 3. For the early history of the distinction and classification of the arts see the literature quoted above in relation to Lessing, ; It H 1 his Laokoon, with notes by Bliimner. For subsequent history, H. Lotze, Geschichte, cit., bk. iii.: Max Schasler, Das System der Kunste auf einem neuen, im Wesen der Kunst begrundeten Gliederungsprincip, 2nd ed., Leipzig-Berlin, 1881, hitrod.: Ed. v. Hartiuaiin, Deutsche Asth. s. Kant, bk. ii. part ii. especially pp. 524-580: V. Basch, Essai sur I'esth. de Kant, pp. 483-496.

§ 4. For the doctrine of styles in antiquity see Volkmann, op. cit. pp. 532-566. The history of grammar and parts of speech is treated fully so far as Graeco-Roman antiquity is concerned in Laur. Lersch, Die Sprachphilosophie der Alien, Bonn, 1838-1841: better still by Steinthal, Geschichte, cit. vol. ii. For Apollonius Dyscolus see Egger, Apollon Dyscole, Paris, 1854. For the history of grammar in the Middle Ages see Ch. Thurot, Extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir a I'histoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen Age, Paris, 1869. For modem times, C. Trabalza, Storm delta gr animation italiana, Milan, 1908. For the history of Criticism several books mentioned under § 2 may be consulted: in addition to these, B. Croce, Per la storia della critica e storiografia letteraria, containing Italian examples (Probl. d. est. pp. 419-448): for the theories of recent French criticism see Em. Hennequin, La Critique scientifique, Paris, 1888, and Ernest Tissot, Les Evolutions de la critique francaise, Paris, 1890. On the concept of "romanticism" see G. Muoni, Note per una poetica storica del romanticismo, Milan, 1906: cf. B. Croce, Le definizioni del romanticismo, in Critica, iv. pp. 241-245 (reprinted in Probl. di estetica, pp. 285-294).


Abelard, 178

Absolute, 162

Absolutism in aesthetic, 122

Accarisio, A., 358

Action, 47

Addison, J., 195, 203, 218

Adherent beauty, 101

A done, 34, 441

Advocatus diaboli, 56

Aenfid, 463

Aeschylus, 411

Aesop, 6

.Ksthctir physics, 105, and


^Esthetic progress, 138
Ahriman, 78
Ainslie, D., 484
Albert!, L. B., 179, 450
Alceo, 37
Alcibiades, 170
Alemanni, V., 482
Alembert, d', 241

Alexander, 29

Algarotti, 359

Alison, A., 261

Allegorical meaning, 177

Allegory, 34

Allen, Grant, 390

Alphabets, 100

Alunno, F., 358

Ambiguity, 71

Ambrosi, L., 479

Aminta, yj

Anacharsis, 223

Anacreon, 31

Anagogic meaning, 177

Andre, 205, 206, 268

Angelis, de, 222 »., 223 «.

Animals, thought in, 23

Anstruther-Thomson, C., 391 ».

Antisthenes, 463

Apollinesque art, 412

Apollonius Dyscolus, 464

Apollonius of Tyana, 171

Apparent feelings, 80-81

Appearance, 17

Applied knowledge, 55
A priori synthesis, 41
Arabic art, 138
Archaeology, 126
Archimedes, 20
Architecture, 101

theory of, 113
Aretino, P., 442

Ariosto, L., 136, 191, 196, 363, 473
Aristarchus, 464
Aristophanes, 16o, 411, 421, 436
Aristotelians, 180

Aristotle, 41, 43, 92, 161, 165, 168,
169, 17o, 173, 176, 178, 182,
184, 186, 187, 193, 217, 218,
22o, 223, 227, 229, 236, 238,
257, 267, 315, 343, 421, 423,
427, 429, 43°, 436, 437, 438,

Aristoxenus, 450
Armida, 102
Arnaud, 488
Arnauld, A., 21o, 229
Arnold, D. E., 218
Arreat, L., 487
Ars Poetica, 228, 257
Art and intuition, 1_2

and science, 25

for art's sake, 52
Arteaga, S., 241, 269
Artificial beauty, 98
Arts, the various:

classifications of, 114, 449 seqq.

limits of, 114, 449 seqq.

no separate aesthetics of, 114

theories of, 113
Ascetic view of art, 85
Asiatic style, 463
Association, aesthetic, 7, 104

linguistic, 144
Ast, F., 30o, 345, 346
Astrology of aesthetic, 11o
Atoms, 30
Attic style, 463
Attractive, the, 87
Aubignac, d', 257, 439

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