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2. flamen Dialis: the chief of the greater flamens: the others were the Martialis and Quirinalis; there were a dozen or more minor flamens. The rules for conduct, dress, and mode of life were excessively burdensome and strict in the case of the flamen Dialis. They are given in detail by Aulus Gellius (X. 15), and the formalities of election are described by Tacitus (Ann. IV. 16) and Dio (LIV. 36. 1). In regard to Caesar's nomination Velleius Paterculus (II. 45) says : cum paene puer a Mario Cinnaque flamen Dialis creatus, victoria Sullae, qui omnia ab iis acta fecerat irrita, amisisset id sacerdotium, etc. Marius died in 86 B.C.; Cinna, 84 B.C. It was to succeed L. Cornelius Merula that Caesar was nominated. Marius had married Caesar's aunt. Merula had committed suicide when Marius and Cinna returned to power in 87 B.C. The office was not filled until seventy-five years later (Tacitus says seventytwo), when Augustus inaugurated a flamen Dialis in 11 B.C. (Tac., Ann. III. 58). See Warde Fowler, An Unnoticed Trait in the Character of Julius Cuesar, Classical Review, XXX (1916), page 69. The trait is Caesar's life-long interest in caerimonia, antiquarianism, and ritual. destinatus : this word well expresses the intention of the rulers of Rome, who for the time had complete mastery. Formally the flamen was chosen by the Pontifex Maximus from candidates nominated by the college of Pontiffs.

3. Cossutia: her family never attained prominence. familia equestri : ablative of quality coördinated with the following adjective dives. praetextato : sc. ei or Caesari ; the expression is not precise because the age of exchanging the toga praetexta for the toga virilis varied. It would hardly be earlier than fourteen or later than eighteen years.

4. quater consulis : quater is attributive to consulis ; Introd. II. $ 6. a.; who was four times consul. Cinna's fourth consulship was in 84 B.C. ; in his fourth consulship would be quartum or quarto consulis.

5. mox: in Silver Latin, afterward, not ‘soon'. Julia was born in 83 or 82 B.C. She was Caesar's only legitimate child, and was married to Pompey in 59 B.C. She died in 54 B.C.

6. repudiaret : the formal renunciation of the marriage relation, addressed by one of the parties to the other, was called repudium. dictatore Sulla : note that the title precedes the name in this case, reversing the usual order; Introd. II. § 10. b. (1).

7. Quare . multatus : this does not all refer to one date, but all the penalties are summed up together. Caesar may not have been formally proscribed, but he was arbitrarily punished for his refusal to obey the orders of Sulla.

9. e medio: from the public view ; he was forced to hide himself. quamquam adgravante : note the use of the concessive particle even though by itself the participle would have a certain concessive force. Quamvis is not often used in this way by Suetonius. quartanae : sc. febris; Introd. II. § 3. b.

12. donec : always until in Suetonius, never so long as'. per virgines Vestales: it was their recognized right to intercede for afflicted persons, especially for those condemned to death ; cf. Cic., pro

Fonteio, 46. [17. 36]; Suet., Tib. 2. 4; Vit. 16; Tac., Ann. XI. 32. 5; Hist. III. 81. perque : Suetonius is fond of joining -que to prepositions ; Introd. II. $ 6. k. Mamercum Aemilium (Lepidum Livianum): this praenomen is peculiar to the gens Aemilia. He was consul in 77 B.C. with D. Brutus. When legatus of Pompey, in the Marsic war, he routed the Italians. (Cic., Brut. XLVII. 175; Liv., Ep. LXXVI.)

13. (M.) Aurelium Cottam : consul in 74 B.c. with L. Lucullus (Cic., in Verr. V. 13. 34).

15. ornatissimis = honoratissimis.
16. denegasset : sc. veniam. expugnatum: prevailed upon.

17. divinitus : adverb coördinate with the ablative aliqua coniectura; Introd. II. § 10. a.

18. vincerent ac sibi, etc.: indirect imperatives. Whether there is any truth in this story or not, it illustrates a certain careless arrogance, characteristic of Sulla in the days of his power.

Page 2. 2. Caesari ... inesse : Introd. II. § 4. j.

Chapter 2. Military Service

3. Stipendia prima: it was customary and, indeed, obligatory for young men intending to enter upon the senatorial cursus honorum to qualify themselves for the lowest office by serving a campaign or two in the army, usually as members of a commander's staff, contubernales, so called because they lived in the commander's tent, while learning from him the art of war. Asia : the province of Asia, acquired by Rome under the will of Attalus III. of Pergamos, in 133 B.C. Marci Thermi : of the gens Minucia. Aurelius Victor (82) says: Contubernalis Thermo in Asiam profectus. This Thermus is not to be confounded with Quintus Minucius Thermus, who was a partisan of Pompey in the Civil War. (Caes., B. C. I. 12; Flor., IV. 2. 19; Luc., II. 463; Plut., Cato Minor, XXVII.) This Thermus was propraetor in 81 B.C. and went to Asia with L. Murena, Sulla's legate.

4. ad accersendam classem ; to get the aid of the Bithynian fleet for the Romans who were besieging Mytilene.

5. Nicomeden : surnamed Philopator, expelled from his kingdom by Mithradates, restored to it by the Romans, to whom he left it when he died without heirs in 74 s.c. (App., Mithr. VII). non sine: a favorite litotes with Suetonius; Introd. II. $ 10. k. rumore: this malignant gossip was very probably invented long afterward by Caesar's enemies; such stories were common in antiquity. They can hardly be proved or disproved. Suetonius has a morbid relish for scandal.

6. pudicitiae : Introd. II. § 4. d.

7. repetita Bithynia : his return to Bithynia. per causam : = per speciem; on the pretext; Introd. II. $ 5. n. (3).

8. cuidam libertino : some understand this dative as equivalent to the ablative with a, owed by a certain freedman. It is more natural to understand owed to a certain freedman. Caesar would then be prosecuting a claim for his client, not demanding a debt from him.

9. Reliqua militia : ablative of time; but it may be the subject of fuit.

10. Mytilenarum : the only city in Asia which continued its armed resistance after the defeat of Mithradates in the first Mithradatic war. The siege began in 81 B.C.; the city was taken and sacked in 80 B.C. corona civica: see Classical Dictionary, Art. corona.

The corona civica, which ranked second to the corona obsidionalis, or wreath of grass, was composed of oak leaves, and was the reward for saving the life of a citizen in battle. In the earliest times it was bestowed by the rescued person upon his rescuer. The winning of this crown carried with it certain permanent public honors, and certain claims upon the rescued person (Plin., N. H. XXII. 3. (4). 8; Plut., Quaest Rom. 92).

Chapter 3. Return to Rome

11. (P.) Servilio (Vatia) Isaurico: consul with Appius Claudius Pulcher in 79 B.C., and father of Caesar's colleague in 48 B.C. brevi tempore : he returned to Rome before the end of 78 B.C., on hearing of Sulla's death. As to the construction see B. 231, 1; A. 424, 6; G. 393, 2.

12. spe : Introd. II. § 4. t. novae dissensionis : referring to the reaction attempted by Lepidus, who wished to repeal the acts of Sulla, but was baffled by Catulus, his fellow consul, and by Pompey.

14. quamquam : with the subjunctive as on page 27, line 22 : Introd. II. $ 8. g.

16. diffisus : with ablatives. minorem opinione : brachylogy.

Chapter 4. Début at the Bar.

Début at the Bar. Adventure with Pirates

18. (Cn.) Cornelium Dolabellam : consul B.c. 81 with M. Tullius Decula, afterward governed Macedonia and celebrated a triumph over the Thracians (Cic., in Pison. XIX). He is to be distinguished from the propraetor of Cilicia nose legate was Verres (Cic., in Verr. I. 4; II. 1. 15). He was defended by C. Aurelius Cotta and Hortensius (Cic., Brut. 92. 317 ; Valer. Max., VIII. 9. 3; Plut., Caes. IV). There is disagreement as to the date of this prosecution. Plutarch agrees with Velleius Paterculus (II. 43) and Tacitus (Dial. 34). The statement of Suetonius puts it in B.c. 77, when Caesar was 23. Tacitus says : uno et vicensimo (anno).

19. triumphalem : unusual as a noun, without vir; some MSS. add virum ; cf. page 63, line 31. repetundarum postulavit : prosecuted him under Sulla's law (82-79 B.c.). The quaestio de repetundis was one of the nine quaestiones, or permanent criminal courts established by Sulla. It was a recognized custom for young nobles to make their debut in public life by prosecuting some prominent politician. Rome had no magistrates charged with the duty of instituting proceedings in such cases. The genitive, instead of the ablative with de, is post-Augustan.

20. absolutoque : sc. Dolabella ; the omission of the subject of the ablative absolute is rather harsh ; Introd. II. § 9, a. (5). et ad declinandam ... et ut, etc.: note the coördination of the different final constructions ; Introd. II. § 10. a.

21. Apollonio Moloni : the father's name Molo is attached to the son's, Apollonius, like a modern surname. Some would read Molonis. This Apollonius Molo was also Cicero's teacher. Plutarch places this period of study after Caesar's capture by the pirates and before his prosecution of Dolabella. We can hardly determine from this whether Caesar actually spent any time with Molo, or only intended to do so.

23. dum. traicit: dum, “while', is normally used by Suetonius.

24. Pharmacussam insulam : a small island near the coast of Asia above Miletus; not to be confounded with the two islets between Attica and Salamis. a praedonibus : Plutarch's version of the story (Caes. II) is somewhat different. Valerius Maximus (VI. 9. 15) agrees with this. In regard to the prevalence of piracy in the Mediterranean at this period, read App., Mithr. XCII. sqq. The subjugation of these pirates was one of Pompey's brilliant achievements.

25. non sine : cf. non sine rumore, page 2, line 5, and note. 26. cum uno duobus : chiastic order. 27. servosque ceteros : and his other attendants, who were slaves.

expediendas : comparandas ; cf. Caes., B. G. VII. 36, rem frumentariam expedisset.

28. Numeratis : nothing is said of the return of the messengers.

29. quinquaginta talentis: Plutarch tells how he laughed at the pirates for asking only twenty talents (Caes. II).

30. classe deducta: from the barbor of Miletus. abeuntis ac redactos: sc. piratas.

31. supplicio : cf. page 36, line 6; see also Plutarch (Caes. II. ) and Velleius Paterculus (II. 42).

Page 3. 2. ab Rhodo : notice the preposition ; cf. ab Alexandria, page 18, line 12; A Brundisio, page 30, line 30 ; often used of departure from a port; Introd. II. § 5. a. (2). transiit in Asiam, etc. : this was a rather high-handed proceeding for a private citizen and a young man. It reflected upon the capacity and energy of the governor Junius.

4. nutantis : figurative.

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Chapter 5. Takes the Popular Side in Politics


5. Tribunatu : ablative of time. primus : note its separation from its noun honor. reverso : sc. ei or Caesari. per suffragia populi : 24 military tribunes were elected annually in the comitia tributa (at least after 207 B.c.). These sufficed for four legions; others were appointed by the consuls or by commanders of armies.

6. restituendae tribuniciae potestatis : this was accomplished in the consulship of Pompey and Crassus, 70 B.C., when the arrangement of Sulla was reversed. There are many references in literature to this restoration of the tribunes to their powers.

7. Sulla deminuerat: Liv., Ep. LXXXIX; App., B. C. I. 100. enixissime : a rare superlative.

8. L. etiam Cinnae : a bold collocation of etiam, between the two parts of a name ; cf. Aulo etiam Hirtio, page 86, line 1.

et qui:

et eis qui ; Introd. II. § 10. d. (2).

9. post necem: a curious expression, for Lepidus died a natural death in Sardinia (App., B. C. I. 107). This use of nex is “post-Augustan and rare. consulis : he had been consul in 78 B.C. ; his death occurred in 77 B.C. 10. reditum

contionem: note the chiastic order. redi. tum in civitatem : noun modified by a prepositional phrase; cf. accessum ad insulam, page 30, line 28 ; urgentibus de Pharnace nuntiis, page 18, line 13; perpauca a se verba, page 43, line 30. rogatione

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