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Plotia : a bill proposed by Plotius or Plautius, tribune of the plebs, not to be confounded with his lex iudiciaria, or lex de vi, of 89 B.C. ; see Gell., XIII. 3. 5.

Chapter 6. Quaestor, 67 or 68 B.C.

12. Quaestor : he was elected in 68 or 69 B.c. and went into Further Spain the next year. Iuliam . . . Corneliam: chiastic order; Julia was the widow of Marius, and the sister of Caesar's father. Cornelia, Caesar's wife, was Cinna's daughter (page 1, line 4). This is the earliest recorded instance of a funeral eulogy pronounced over a young woman, as Plutarch remarks (Caes. V. 2).

13. laudavit e more pro rostris : cf. Polyb., VI. 53, 54 ; Liv., V.50. 7 ; this honor was paid to matrons after the Gallic invasion of 390 B.C.

14. de eius ac patris sui utraque origine : pleonasm ; Introd. II. § 10. e.

19. Marcii Reges : the mother of Caesar's father and aunt Julia was Marcia, wife of C. Julius Caesar and sister of Q. Marcius Rex, consul in 118 B.C.

Rex was a proper name and no more proved royalty than “King” in English. a Venere Iulii : the legend of the descent of the Iulii from Iulus, son of Aeneas, son of Anchises and Venus, is the one made familiar to us by Vergil, and officially adopted when the Iulii became an imperial dynasty ; cf. the reference to the temple of Venus Genetrix in Chap. 61. See Warde Fowler's article cited in note to page 1, line 2.

22. caerimonia : reverence.

24. Pompeiam : daughter of Q. Pompeius Rufus, who married a daughter of Sulla.

25. divortium : it was really a repudium, being an ex parte act, but divortium is used in this sense as well as more strictly of an agreement to separate. The occurrence was in 62 B.C., when Caesar was praetor.

26. Publio Clodio : the notorious tribune and demagogue, Cicero's bitter enemy.

27. inter : Introd. II. § 5. 1. (2). publicas caerimonias : the mysteries of the Bona Dea, to which women only were admitted (Plut., Caes. IX). They were celebrated at the houses of praetors or consuls on May 1, at night. Caesar was not only a praetor, but had been elected pontifex maximus in 63 s.c. See also chap. 74. 2. 29. quaestionem : a special commission, appointed to try this case,

"extraordinary court, not one of the permanent tribunals (Cic., ad Att. I. 13. 3).


Chapter 7. In Further Spain

A very long sentence, yet quite clear.

30. Quaestori : resuming the narrative interrupted at the beginning of chap. 6. His service was under Antistius Vetus (Vell. Paterc., II. 43), whose son he afterward took to the same province as quaestor when he himself was propraetor.

ulterior : i.e. trans Hiberum. obvenit : the quaestorships were assigned by lot.

31. praetoris : strictly propraetoris; at this period a praetor spent his first year at Rome presiding over a court of law; the second year he spent as propraetor governing a province. iure dicundo : dative; Lane's Gr. 501; B. 191, 3; 339, 7; A. 505, b; G. 429, 1; Introd. II. § 4. g. He was thus not inerely a financial officer, but was exercising judicial functions as the praetor's deputy. The acquisition and organization of the two Spanish provinces led to the increase of the praetors, from four to six, in 198 B.C. conventus: the provincial assizes. Caesar several times mentions them in his “Gallic War” (I. 54; V. 2; VIII. 46); cf. page 15, line 15 and page 29, line 30.

32. apud : at. Herculis : i.e. the Phoenician Melkart, to whom Hannibal paid his vows (Liv., XXI. 21. 9).


Page 4. 1. Magni Alexandri : Suetonius always prefixes Magnus when mentioning Alexander and Pompey the Great ; Introd. II. § 10. b. (2). Alexander claimed descent from Heracles. pertaesus: transitive; Introd. II. § 4. n.

2. nihil dum a, se memorabile actum esset : notice the interlocked order.

3. in aetate : in ea aetate ; notice in with the ablative of time; G. 394; Introd. II. § 5. k. (2). (a). Caesar was now about thirty-three, the age at which Alexander died, after a reign of twelve years and seven months.

4. missionem : like Marius, who a Metello petundi (sc. consulatus) gratia missionem rogat when serving under Metellus in the war against Jugurtha (Sall., Jug. LXIV. 1).

7. per : during; Introd. II. § 5. n. (2). coiectores : cf. Quint. III. 6. 30 : etiam somniorum atque ominum interpretes coniectores vocantur.

10. non alia esset quam terra, quae, etc. : cf. Liv., I. 56. 12, scilicet quod ea communis mater omnium mortalium esset.

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Chapter 8. Political Agitations

Notice the participial constructions in this sentence.

11. ante tempus: before the expiration of his year of office, and before the arrival of his successor.

12. colonias Latinas: the Transpadane Gauls had received Latin rights (ius Latii, Latinitas) during the Marsic war, by a law of Pompeius Strabo, father of Pompey the Great, in 89 B.C. They were eager for the full Roman franchise, which they finally received from Caesar, when dictator.

13. consules : C. Calpurnius Piso and M'. Acilius Glabrio. This was the year when the Gabinian law was passed, giving Pompey command against the pirates, whose chief stronghold was Cilicia.

14. ob id ipsum : i.e. to check any rising of the “coloniae Latinae”.

Chapter 9. Suspected of Conspiracy

16. ante paucos dies quam, etc. : Introd. II. $ 8. d, and see note to page 23, line 12, prius quam. Notice the separation of ante and quam; they are separate words in Suetonius even when no other words intervene. aedilitatem : this was the curule aedileship, in 65 B.C. His colleague was M. Calpurnius Bibulus. in suspicionem conspirasse : cf. page 44, line 26, Suspicionem ..

neque voluisse .

neque curasse; this construction is found in Cicero.

17. Marco Crasso : colleague of Pompey as consul in 70 B.C., and later a member of the First Triumvirate.

18. Publio Sulla et L. Autronio : elected consuls for 65 B.C., they were condemned for bribery and never entered office. L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus, the latter the father of their prosecutor, were elected in their place. P. Sulla was a nephew of the dictator.

19. ambitus : illegal canvassing, especially bribery; a lex Acilia Calpurnia de ambitu had been carried by the consuls of 67 B.C. ut

. . adorirentur : in Claud. 37, Suetonius uses the infinitive with conspirare : cum ... conspirassent perdere.

20. trucidatis : sc. eis ; Introd. II. § 9. a. (5). 21. ipse : sc. Caesar.

23. huius coniurationis : this was the so-called first conspiracy of Catiline. Caesar's connection with it is doubtful.

24. Tanusius Geminus : a little known author of Cicero's generation, who wrote of his own times. The statement below is the only


known quotation from his writings. Marcus Bibulus : Caesar's colleague in the curule aedileship. The reference may perhaps be to the later edicts of his consulship, 59 B.C., when he was again Caesar's colleague, when Cicero in his letters ridiculed the “ Archilochian edicts of Bibulus” (ad Att. II, 19, 20, 21).

25. Curio pater : C. Scribonius Curio, consul in 77 B.C., a wellknown orator, the father of Caesar's clever and unscrupulous partisan.

26. ad Axium epistula : see Tyrrell and Purser, Correspondence of Cicero, Vol. VI, fragm. XII, page 308.

29. diem .. obisse : not in the usual sense of diem obire but in the generic sense keep his engagement on the day appointed, as we say colloquially, "come to time”.

30. dari convenerat : it had been agreed should be given.

32. de umero: from the left shoulder; the toga was worn over the left and under the right shoulder. sed et: and what is more ; Introd. II. $6. e. M. Actorius Naso: this author is known only by this citation and that on page 26, line 21.

Page 5. l. auctores sunt conspirasse : cf. page 8, line 25 : auctores Bibulo fuerunt . . . pollicendi ; where the meaning of auctores is quite different. Note the tense of sunt; Introd. II. § 7. a.

5. Ambranos : even if this is assumed as the correct reading, the identification is quite uncertain. They may possibly be the remnants of predatory Gauls, destroyed, for the most part, by Marius (Liv., Epit. LXVIII; Eutrop., V. 1; Oros., V. 6; Plut., Mar. XVIII and XIX).

Chapter 10. Curule aedile, 65 B.C. 7. basilicas : those existing at this time were the Sempronia, Aemilia et Fulvia, Porcia, Opimia.

8. ornavit : i.e. for the public games which were exhibited during his term of office; the decorations in such cases were pictures, statues or other works of art, borrowed for the purpose, often from provinces or allied cities. ad tempus : temporary.

10. Venationes : these wild beast hunts formed part of the ludi Circenses; the trouble taken by the magistrates is illustrated by the correspondence between Cicero, when governor of Cilicia, and Caelius Rufus, then curule aedile (Cic., ad Fam. VIII. 9. 3 ; II. 11. 2). ludosque : perhaps especially ludi scaenici, dramatic exhibitions ; cf. chap. 39; the production of plays was part of the business of the aediles. separatim : Introd. II. § 1. f.


12. gratiam : credit. collega .. Bibulus : notice that the common noun precedes the proper; Introd. II. § 10. b. (1).

14. aedes . . . Castoris : in the southern part of the Forum, on the Sacra Via. Its podium and three beautiful Corinthian columns with their entablature are still one of the most conspicuous landmarks in the Forum. The original temple, according to the legend, was vowed in 496 B.C., and built in 484 B.C., after the battle of Lake Regillus. A later building was erected by L. Caecilius Metellus Delmaticus after his triumph in 117 B.c. The remains that we see are part of the building of Tiberius, which was restored under Trajan or Hadrian. It was officially known as the temple of Castor or “the Castors”.

17. gladiatorium munus : an exhibition of gladiators was called a munus because it was a gift to the people by the exhibitor (editor); or possibly because it was originally a tribute of respect (oficium) toward a deceased person, in whose honor the games were celebrated.

It was in connection with public funerals that such exhibitions were first given. The first recorded occasion at Rome was in 264 b.c. Later the practice became a mere popular amusement and a means of bidding for popular favor for those who were in office or who intended to seek office. Aediles, of course, aspired to the praetorship. If patricians, they were excluded from the chance of winning favor as plebeian tribunes.

18. paucioribus paribus : notice the separation; as to the number, Plutarch says he exhibited 320 pairs (Caes. V).

19. familia : this word is strictly correct because, as a rule, the gladiators were the slaves of the exhibitor, or else hired by him from their

Some were captives taken in war, some were criminals condemned to the arena, some were free men who had voluntarily adopted what was regarded as a degrading profession.


Chapter 11.

Restoration of the Trophies of Marius

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23. ut daretur : substantive clause after temptavit ; Introd. II. § 8. l. provincia : this means the sphere of action or duty assigned to a magistrate or promagistrate with imperium. It was not necessarily a part of the territory inside the empire. Egypt was still a nominally and legally independent kingdom. In this case the plan was that Caesar should be sent with an army to restore or confirm in his title to the throne Ptolemy XI, Auletes. plebi scito : notice the form plebi, for plebei, in this combination :- the words became a single compound. A plebiscitum was a law passed by the concilium tributim plebis,

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