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44 B.C.

Aug. 3): “Caesar was accordingly brought up in association with Philip as with a father and gave indications of great promise'. Cf. Aug. 29. 5.

6. ab eo tempore : April or May, 44 B.C. exercitibus comparatis : with reference to the army first levied against Antony, at Mutina,

Cf. M. A. I. 1. 1: Annos undeviginti natus exercitum privato consilio et privata impensa comparavi.

7. primum, etc. : from the formation of the so-called Second Triumvirate, November 27, 43 B.C., to the degradation of Lepidus in 36 B.C. deinde, etc. : from the compulsory abdication of Lepidus, 36 B.C., to the battle of Actium in 31 B.C. Antony's death in 30 B.C. left Octavian undisputed sole ruler. The twelve years of joint rule, it will be observed, are divided into two parts by primum and deinde.

8. novissime, etc. : the last period in this brief summary of Augustus's rule is defined by the death of Antony, 30 B.C.,

and the death of Augustus in 14 A.D.

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10. singillatim : see Introd. II. § 1. f.

11. neque per tempora, etc. : not in chronological order, but by topics. The topical method usually followed by Suetonius is markedly in contrast with the conscious aim of Tacitus, the philosophy of history ; cf. Tac., Hist. I. 4, ut non modo casus eventusque rerum, qui plerumque fortuiti sunt, sed ratio etiam causaeque noscantur. A comparative study of the methods of Tacitus, Suetonius, Plutarch and Dio in the Lives of Galba and Otho may be found in Wiedemann's dissertation on this subject, Berlin, 1857. For an analysis of the Augustus see the headings of the various chapters in the notes of this edition. The first class of subjects is that of the civil wars extending through chapter 18.

13. Mutinense, etc. : chapters 10–12 are devoted to the civil war of Mutina ; chapter 13, to that of Philippi; chapters 14–15, to that of Perusia ; chapter 16, to the Sicilian war; chapters 17-18, to Actium. Note the asyndeton in enumeration : Introd. II. § 10. f. (5).

Chapter 10. Cause of the Wars. Break with Antony. Conduct

at Mutina

19. Omnium bellorum, etc. : the reason for beginning all his wars he took from this; take initium et causam as a hendiadys; see Introd. II. § 10. i.

necem

20. convenientius : more incumbent on him; combining loyalty to his uncle's memory with self-aggrandizement.

.. acta : chiasmus; see Introd. II. § 10. h. Augustus himself mentions the vengeance meted out to the assassins of Julius ; cf. M. A. II. 1. 10–12: Qui parentem meum interfecerunt, eos in exilium expuli iudiciis legitimis ultus eorum facinus, et po ea bellum inferentis rei publicae vici bis dcie. Caesar's enactments, appointments, etc. were confirmed by the senate in March pacis causa, according to Cicero (Phil. II. 39. 100), in spite of the conspirators' intention to rescind them. Antony alarmed the nobles, in particular, by claiming the same authority for mere memoranda (genuine or forged) of the Dictator as for the acta themselves.

21. confestim ut Apollonia rediit: immediately upon his return from Apollonia; but his purpose was cleverly concealed for several months. During his slow progress to Rome the young Octavius acted in such a way as to deceive Cicero regarding his real intentions ; cf. Cic., ad Att. XV. 12. 2, vide urque erga nostros heroas ita fore, ut nos vellemus, animatus.

22. et vi. et : practically equivalent to primum . deinde. vi ... legibus adgredi : note the chiastic order and the zeugma with adgredi, to attack by force of arms and to institute legal proceedings against. See Introd. II. § 10. h and II. § 10. C. quia provisum, etc. : even their official position was of no avail against the frenzy of the Roman mobs. Though praetors, Brutus and Cassius immediately left Rome and, after halting at several places in Italy, finally took ship for Greece to enter upon their provincial appointments in Macedonia and Syria, respectively, long before the expiration of their terms of office at Rome. This occurred in 44 B.C. Several laws were passed, however, as seen from M. A. II. 1. 10 : eos (i.e. the assassins) in exilium expuli iudiciis legitimis. Especial reference is here made to the lex Pedia, passed in August of 43 B.C., by which omnibus qui Caesarem patrem interfecerant aqua ignique damnatis interdictum erat, Velleius (II. 69. 5) says. But the lex Cornelia de sicariis and the lex Iulia de vi publica or lex Iulia maiestatis may also have been in the writer's mind.

23. reosque ... deferre : indict them in their absence on a charge of murder. Deferre, without nomen, is post-Augustan. The idiom in Cicero is deferre nomen alicuius de aliquo; cf. Cic., pro M. Cael. 31. nomen amici mei de ambitu detulit. See page 15, line 26, delaturum se nomen eius. Consult Introd. II. § 1. C.

24. Ludos . . . Caesaris : in honor of Caesar's victory at Munda on March 17, 45 B.C. These games were to have been given in connec

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tion with the dedication, on April 21, of the temple of Venus Genetrix which Caesar had vowed at Pharsalus in 48 b.c. Octavius's celebration occurred in May and lasted eleven days. At this time the comet typifying Caesar's apotheosis appeared on seven successive nights ; cf. Jul. 88 ; Dio XLV. 7. 1.

25. audentibus : sc. eis ; see Introd. II. § 9. a. (5). quibus . munus : to whose lot this office had fallen ; probably, the college of priests, whose duties involved the exhibition of shows from year to year.

27. locum ... demortui : the vacancy due to the death of Helvius Cinna when he was mistaken by the mob for the assassin, L. Cornelius Cinna, and literally torn to pieces. The story is told in Jul. 85. didatum se ostendit: announced himself as candidate. Octavian had put forward a certain Flaminius for the office, but the people, in disregard of qualifications of age and rank, would have none other than the young Octavian. Through his consular power of coercitio Antony stopped the proceedings and the vacancy remained unfilled.

28. quanquam patricius : see note to page 49, line 23, and Introd. II. § 6. m. necdum senator : to disregard the cursus honorum, while not illegal, was at least irregular. Octavian had not held the quaestorship, which had qualified for the senate since Sulla's time, and only senators were eligible for the office of tribune. His age might have been a third objection. adversante ... Antonio : Octavian was opposed by Antony in his claim for his patrimony, with regard to the lex curiata necessary for his adoption, respecting the exercises in honor of Julius and in his candidacy for the office of tribunus suffectus, as seen above.

quem speraverat: sc. futurum esse; in whom he had hoped most especially to find an ally; see Introd. II. § 10. d. (1). Vel with praecipuus here and elsewhere in Suetonius has about the same force as when used with a superlative; see page 10, line 21, vel praecipua opera ; page 62, line 24, e quibus vel praecipua; page 65, line 20, vel praecipuam calumniandi materiam ; Dom. 19, vel praecipuo studio; and, with the adverb, Ner. 22. 1, vel praecipue ; Vit. 13. 1, Sed vel praecipue.

30. ne publicum ... translativum ius : not even the common justice which belonged to all alike. Whether the more usual tralaticium or the translativum of the Mss. be read here, the meaning is unmistakable. For a time, at least, Antony thwarted Octavian's adoption into a patrician house and his aspirations to the tribunate. See Introd. II, § 1. c on the technical phrase here used.

31. sine pactione ... mercedis : without agreeing to the heaviest blackmail.

29.

32. ad optimates se contulit: he went over to the aristocrats. Ignorant of the real intentions of the young Octavian for some months after his return from Apollonia, the Optimates failed to see that he was to use their party as a tool against Antony in his efforts to gain an equal standing with him and then to turn against the aristocrats themselves. In their hatred of Antony, however, they considered it of the utmost importance to their party to detach Octavian from Antony's faction as likely to become a dangerous factor in the situation. Thus Cicero says of Octavian (ad Att. XV. 12. 2): Sed tamen alendus est et, ut nihil aliud, ab Antonio seiungendus. Octavian himself asserts his purpose in raising the troops towards the end of the year 43 B.c.; cf. M. A. I. 1. 2, per quem (i.e. exercitum) rem publicam dominatione factionis (i.e. Optimatum) oppressam in libertatem vindicavi. eum : i.e. Antony.

Page 51. 1. D. Brutum : consul designatus for 43 B.c. in Caesar's arrangements contemplating the Parthian campaign. Cisalpine Gaul was to be his province after March, 42 B.C. This appointment had been confirmed, along with those of the other conspirators, by the senate on March 17, 44 B.C.; cf. Cic., Phil. II. 39. 100. But in June Antony had secured its transfer to himself. Decimus was not the man, however, to comply with Antony's notification in November to withdraw from the disputed province. Cf. Liv., Epit. CXVII.

2. Mutinae : modern Modena, situated in a fertile plain about half way between Bologna and Parma on the Milan-Bologna line. Originally a town of the Gallic Boii, it became a Roman colony in 183 B.C. Here Brutus was besieged by Antony from December of 44 B.C. to April of

Near its walls the consuls Hirtius and Pansa lost their lives. See note to line 10, below. provincia . . . data : it is a notable fact that five of the assassins rested their claims to provincial appointments upon the enactments of the very man whom they had murdered and whose acts they would have annulled ; cf. Jul. 82. 4 and see Shuckburgh, Augustus, page 19, with note 2.

3. itaque : postpositive, also, in line 30 of page 59 and often after the Augustan period. It has its usual pre-Augustan initial position on page 32, line 31, and page 37, line 16. See Introd. II. $ 6. g.

4. percussores ei subornavit: such stories of plots against Antony's life were widely circulated, but pretty generally discredited because of no apparent motive on the part of Octavian. Success in this direction would mean the transfer of the Optimates' hatred from Antony, once out of

43 B.c.

their way, to Octavian. Nicolas of Damascus (Vit. Aug. 30), probably giving Octavian's own version, says that the plot and the report accusatory of Octavian were both the invention of Antony himself. See Merivale, Hist. of Rom., III.4 89.

5. periculum metuens : Velleius says (II. 60. 5): C. Caesar iuvenis cotidianis Antonii petebatur insidiis. veteranos : sc. paternos; cf. Vell. II. 61. 2, primumque a Calatia, mox a Casilino veteranos excivit paternos. The levies were made in the early part of October, 44 B.C., at these small towns in the vicinity of Capua. He was later joined by the legio Martia and legio quarta.

6. quanta potuit largitione : by means of as large a bounty as he could command. Octavian's donative of 500 denarii, about $80.00, per man was unprecedented in amount as well as in the fact that it was at his own expense ; cf. Cic., ad Att. XVI. 8. 1; M: A. I. 1. 1, exercitum privato consilio et privata impensa comparavi. iussusque ... praeesse : and with orders to hold command, with the rank of propraetor, of the army he had procured. By vote of the senate on January first, 43 B.C., Octavian was accorded senatorial rank among the praetorii and invested with the imperium. A second decree gave him the ornamenta consularia. He himself states (M. A. I. 1. 3 ff.): Ob quae senatus decretis honorificis in ordinem suum me adlegit C. Pansa A. Hirtio consulibus, consularem locum simul dans sententiae ferendae, et imperium mihi dedit. The nominative forms of titles of pro-magistrates, proconsul, propraetor, etc., are found only occasionally. Here the form pro praetore indicates that Octavian was exercising the authority of a praetor without ever having held the office.

8. susceperant: had entered upon; January first, 43 B.C. D. Bruto: shut up in Mutina since the close of 44 B.C. The battles mentioned below were fought in April, 43 B.C.

9. demandatum: entrusted ; said to occur more often in Suetonius than in any other writer : cf. page 38, line 17, demandavit; page 43, line 2, demandaverat; etc. tertio mense: not to be taken too literally; Octavian left Rome late in December and the decisive battles were fought in April.

10. duobus proeliis : the first occurred on April 15, 43 B.C., at Forum Gallorum, about eight miles from the beleaguered city on the Via Aemilia. There is probably no good reason for doubting Dio's statement (XLVI. 38. 1) that Octavian was not personally engaged in this battle. Antony's slanderous story of his ignominious flight seems as groundless as the baser calumny of persistent report that Glycon, the

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