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10. sepulturam : the rite of burial, so hallowed in the eyes of the Roman and so necessary to his future happiness. Ulpian (Dig. XLVIII. 24. 1) quotes Augustus as saying in his Memoirs that it was his practice to allow the bodies of those executed to be buried by their relatives. iam istam, etc. : that would now be the prerogative of the birds; with istam (sc. sepulturam) as subject of fore. Cf. Ter., Heaut. 720, quasi non ea potestas sit tua.

11. alios : probably the Aquilii Flori, of whom Dio (LI. 2. 5) tells the same story, but dates the incident after Actium.

12. sortiri vel micare: to draw lots or play mora, as they chose. Mora is a game still common in Italy, in which the players thrust out their fingers (micare digitis), the winner being the player who guesses correctly the number of fingers thrust out by his opponent. From the unusual opportunity for cheating at the game arose the proverb for the thoroughly honest man as one cum quo audacter posses in tenebris micare (cf. Petron., Sat. 44); or dignum esse dicunt quicum in tenebris mices (cf. Cic., de Off. III. 19. 77). Nonius's definition (347. 27, M.) of the word is interesting in this connection : Micare est sortiri digitis; cf. Cic., de Off. III. 23.90: Nullum erit certamen, sed quasi sorte aut micando victus alteri cedet alter. For a photograph illustrating the game of mora as played on the island of Sardinia to-day see The National Geographic Magazine, XXX. 2. 119.

13. ut alterutri concederetur : in order to decide which should be allowed to live; lit. “in order that it (i.e. vita) might be allowed to one of the two'.

14. quia se optulerat: sc. morti or ad mortem; because he had offered to die, to save his son.

15. voluntariam .. necem : had taken his own life. Mortem is more common than necem in this use of the verb. Occumbere is also used absolutely ; cf. line 2, above, occubuisse.

16. ille Catonis aemulus : the well known rival of Cato; cf. Plut., Caes. XXI, ζηλωτής Κάτωνος. Mommsen styles him Cato's Sancho?: see his Hist. of Rome (Engl. Trans.), V. 134. Like Cato (Uticensis), Favonius was an uncompromising oligarch, bitterly hostile to both Caesar and Pompey, yet espousing the cause of the latter in the Civil War. His efforts, lik Cato's, were of a negative kind. An inglorious death after Philippi at Octavian's hands succeeded a life of political failure. Cf. Dio XLVII. 49. 4; Cic., ad Q. Fr. II. 3. 2, ad Att. VII. 15. 2.

17. imperatore . salutato: whereas they greeted Antony respectfully as imperator', the title applied to a conquering general by

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his soldiers. foedissimo ... prosciderunt : reviled to his face with the foulest abuse. Favonius was quite capable of such vituperation, according to Plutarch (Pomp. LX) when he speaks of a certain Favonius, a man not otherwise evil, but often deeming that he was imitating Cato's frank, outspoken manner by his insolent presumption'.

18. prosciderunt: in this transferred sense, poetic and postAugustan ; cf. Ov., Pont. IV. 16. 47, Ergo summotum patria proscindere, Livor, desine ; Plin., N. H. XXXVI. 6. 48, Catulli Veronensis carminibus proscissus; Suet., Vit. Luc., Sed et famoso carmine cum ipsum tum potentissimos amicorum gravissime proscidit. We may compare our corresponding English expression, • tear to shreds ', tatters'.

19. Partitis . . . officiis : in the distribution of their duties of administration. In this second division, after Philippi, Spain and Numidia fell to Octavian's lot, Gaul and Africa to Antony's. In the event that this met with the displeasure of Lepidus, now at Rome and under suspicion of intrigue with Sextus Pompeius, Antony was to relinquish Africa to him. Sicily and Sardinia were still practically occupied by Pompey. Cisalpine Gaul now became part of Italy proper. By this agreement Lepidus was practically ignored. Cf. Dio XLVIII. 1. 2–2. 4. Orientem ordinandum : to set the East in order; a far different task from that assigned Octavian, who was to restrict the power of Lepidus in case of a hostile move, to conduct the war against Sextus and to assign lands to the veteran campaigners : see Dio XLVIII. 2. 2 f.

21. municipalibus agris collocandos : to settle them on lands of the municipalities. There were eighteen of these municipal towns ; cf. App., B. C. IV. 3. 10. For the use of agris without in see Introd. II. § 4. r.

22. veteranorum : especially those who had served with Antony and who had been tampered with by L. Antonius and Fulvia ; cf. App., B. C. V. 14. 54. , possessorum : those landowners, in particular, in friendly cities who had not received the expected compensation for their confiscated estates. The remittances from the East promised by Antony would have relieved the situation to some extent, but failed to appear at the expected time. Among the victims of this confiscation was the poet Vergil ; cf. Verg., Ecl. I. Octavian's dilemma at this time is described by Dio (XLVIII. 6 ff.) and Appian (B. C. V. 12. 48–17. 71). alteris pelli se, alteris tractari: arranged chiastically with reference to veteranorum and possessorum.

23. pro spe meritorum : as their services had led them to expect.


Chapter 14.

Personal Dangers

War with Lucius Antonius.


25. Quo tempore : 41 B.C., in the consulship of Lucius Antonius and P. Servilius Isauricus (II). L. Antonium : brother of the triumvir. His life was spared after Perusia and he was later appointed to a command in Iberia. Another brother, Gaius, praetor in Macedonia in 44 B.C., had met his death at the hands of M. Brutus in 42 B.C.

26. fraternae : = fratris ; see Introd. II. $ 3. c. potentiae : political power, especially with the veterans, who were the real masters of the situation and through whose offices a settlement was ineffectually undertaken. Cf. Dio XLVIII. 10. 2 ff. Cicero (Phil. II. 11. 26) thus contrasts potentia with dominatus : Quid? C. Cassius, in ea familia natus, quae non modo dominatum, sed ne potentiam quidem cuiusquam ferre potuit, me auctorem, credo, desideravit. res novas: an abortive rebellion which originated in a woman's jealous passions and a man's selfish ambitions. Fulvia, wife of Mark Antony, nihil muliebre praeter corpus gerens (Vell. II. 74. 3), was intent upon winning back her husband's roving affections from the wiles of Cleopatra, whatever the cost. Lucius Antonius, while posing as the protector of his brother's rights and assuming the surname of Pietas in token of his devotion, was in reality influenced by selfish aims to take advantage of the increasing discontent caused by the confiscations and allotments of land. Before the end of his year of office he had joined Fulvia at Praeneste in open revolt. Cf. Dio XLVIII. 5. 4, 10. 1 ff. confugere Perusiam coegit : at the beginning of the war Antony had gained some slight successes during Octavian's absence from Rome. But Octavian and Agrippa shrewdly outgeneraled the Antonian forces and prevented their union. Checked in his progress towards the north, Antonius withdrew to the strongly fortified Perusia, modern Perugia, situated on a group of hills rising upwards of a thousand feet above the valley of the Tiber in the modern province of Umbria. Cf. Dio XLVIII. 13. 1 ff., 14. 1.

27. ad deditionem, etc. : the siege lasted from the close of 41 B. C. to March, 40 B. C. Despite Dio's statement that the town had ample provisions at the start, the famine became so intensely severe as to make it memorable in Roman history. Authorities agree in attributing the capitulation to the stringency of the famine ; see App., B. C. V. 34. 135 ff.; Flor. II. 16. 5; Dio XLVIII. 14. 2 f. Compare Lucan I. 41 ff.:

His, Caesar, Perusina fames Mutinaeque labores
Accedant fatis et quas premit aspera classes
Leucas et ardenti servilia bella sub Aetna.

28. suis .. discriminibus : personal risks, dangers to himself.

30. quattuordecim ordinibus : see page 20, line 5, where ordinibus is omitted, and note ; also page 69, line 10, e quattuordecim: see Introd. II. $ 3. b.

excitari : be removed from the theater, not simply from his seat; cf. Quint., Inst. III. 6. 19, si excitatus fuerit de spectaculis et aget iniuriarum. Appian (B.C. V. 15. 62 f.) also relates the occurrence.

31. per apparitorem : by an attendant. These apparitores attended upon the magistrates at Rome, received their pay from the public treasury and had places assigned them in the theater and the circus ; cf. Tac., Ann. XVI. 12. 2 and see Momms., Röm. Staatsr. I.3 332 ff. rumore

quasi, etc. see note to page 48, line 23, and Introd. II. $ 6. n. 32. mox et: later also; see Introd. II. $ 6. d and II. $ 6. i. discruciatum necasset: had caused the man to be slain after being subjected to torture. Discrucior is more often used of mental distress ; cf. Ter., Ad. 610, Discrucior animi; Plaut., Aul. 105, Discrucior animi quia ab domo abeundumst mihi. With our passage compare Cic., Phil. XIII. 18. 37 : ita sibi convenisse . .. ut ille ... discruciatos necaret. minimum

periret : all but lost his life; cf. Tib. 19, non multum afuit quin .. occideretur; Cal. 34. 2, paulum afuit quin amoveret.

Page 53. 2. militaris : = militum ; see Introd. II. $ 3. c. Saluti fuit, etc. : it was well for his safety that the missing man suddenly put in an appearance, safe and sound. Observe the inconcinnity of incolumis and sine iniuria ; see Introd. II. $ 10. a. When the soldier denied that he had been harshly treated, his comrades in arms reproached him with want of fealty to their common cause ; cf. App., B.C. V. 15. 63.

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6. in plurimos animadvertit : among the personal enemies of Octavian who suffered at this time Appian mentions Tiberius Canutius, Gaius Flavius and Clodius Bithynicus. The cruelty charged against Octavian seems to have been confined, however, to the senatorial class, while the populace of the town was, in general, pardoned ; cf. App., B.C. V. 48. 203, 49. 207. Yet Dio (XLVIII. 14. 5) states that most of those taken in the place lost their lives and that the city was almost entirely destroyed by fire. Possibly, both statements are correct in so far as Octavian may have pardoned the Perusians and still the soldiers, deprived of their booty, may, themselves, have turned against the inhabitants ; cf. Vell. II. 74. 4, in Perusinos magis ira militum quam voluntate saevitum ducis. The town itself was burned through the act of a certain Cestius Macedonicus, who set fire to his own house and perished in the flames; see App., B.C. V. 49. 204. Lucius Antonius was pardoned, while Fulvia was allowed to escape with Plancus from Italy. Tiberius Claudius Nero, leading the uprising in Campania, escaped to Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, accompanied by his wife, Livia, the future wife of Augustus, and by his infant son, the future emperor, Tiberius. See Vell. II. 75. 3, 76. 2 ; Dio XLVIII. 15. 3; Tib. 6. 1.

7. una voce, etc. : meeting them with the one reply, · You must die; cf. Quint., Inst. I. 5. 36, ut si dicenti, Quem video ? ita occurras, Ego.

8. Scribunt quidam : Dio (XLVIII. 14. 4) is as cautious in his narration of this incident as is Suetonius, giving it as a mere report ; cf. App., B.C. V. 49. 207. Seneca (de Clem. I. 11. 1) speaks with assurance of the Perusinas aras among the forms of cruelty attributed to Octavian. Lack of further proof makes the story a very doubtful one. trecentos : a number suspicious in itself, as Merivale suggests, since it was likewise given for the alleged massacre by Caesar after Thapsus, by Antony at Brundisium and by the triumvirs in the proscriptions. It is just possible that it is simply used of an indefinite large number. See Merivale, Hist. of Rom., III.4 180, n. 2.

9. utriusque ordinis: both senatorial and equestrian ; cf. Dio's mention (XLVIII. 14. 4) of three hundred knights and senators, including others besides Tiberius Canutius'. aram ... extructam : near the column mentioned on page 44, line 21 ; see note on this passage.

10. Idibus Martiis: cf. Jul. 81. 2-4. hostiarum more: like so many victims; i.e. with an ax instead of a sword : cf. Flor. I. 21. 5, Legatos quippe nostros ne gladio quidem sed ut victimas securi percutiunt. mactatos: a word belonging to the ritual of sacrifice ; cf. Lucr. VI. 759, Manibus ut si sint diris mactata repente. It is most unlikely that the early custom of human sacrifice, of which recorded instances are rare, should have been thus revived to appease the di Manes of the deified Julius.

11. conpecto : by agreement, of set purpose; cf. Cic., pro Scaur. 5. 8: Itaque compecto cum matre Bostaris consilium cepit. See Introd. II. $ 9. a. (4). eum ad arma isse: he took up arms, in the war of Perusia.

12. quos metus, etc. : whom fear rather than good will held in restraint from open opposition to him. Compare Caligula's often quoted

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