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Page 76. 1. ceterum numerum: the remaining number; i.e. of men under arms after deducting those in the legions, the auxiliaries and the fleet. These were the nine cohortes praetorianae and the three cohortes urbanae. Cf. Dio LV. 24. 6 : • His body-guard were ten thousand men and were arranged in ten parts and the city guard were six thousand and were distributed in four parts.' For the numbers under Tiberius see Tac., Ann. IV. 5. 5. See Marquardt, Röm. Staatsv. I12. 475 ff.

3. Calagurritanorum : from Calagurris Nassica, modern Calahorra, in Hispania Tarraconensis ; cf. page 44, line 31, custodias Hispanorum.

4. Germanorum : Dio (LVI. 23. 4) speaks of large numbers of Gauls and Celts at Rome, some staying there for a different reason, others in service in the guard ', who were expelled from the city, in 10 A.D., to islands or elsewhere. Shuckburgh thinks these Germani were Batavians, and cites Dio LV. 24. 7, where mention is made of picked mercenary cavalrymen’ from Batavia ; see his note to this passage.

6. tres cohortes : the praetorian ohorts stationed on guard at the imperial palace. They were billeted in various parts of the city until stationed, under Tiberius, in the castra praetoria in the northeastern part of the city between the Viminal and the Colline gates ; cf. Tib. 37. 1: Romae castra constituit, quibus praetorianae cohortes vagae ante id tempus et per hospitia dispersae continerentur; Tac., Ann. IV. 2. 1. See Platner, Anc. Rome 2, 499 f.

8. Quidquid ... militum esset : see Introd. II. § 4. e and II. $ 8. h.

9. ad certam stipendiorum, etc. : legionary soldiers were to be discharged with gratuities (commodis missionum) after a term of service originally, in 13 B.C., fixed at sixteen and later, in 5 A.D., at twenty years. The term of service for praetorians was at first twelve and later

Cf. Dio LIV. 25. 6, LV. 23. 1 ; M. A. XVII. 3. 36 ff. 14. ad tuendos eos prosequendosque : for their maintenance and the bestowal of rewards upon them ; cf. page 13, line 28, uberrimo congiario prosequebatur; page 84, line 11, virtutes ac merita cuiusque digne prosecutus.

15. aerarium militare : established in 6 A.D. to provide for the veterans and replenished from the emperor's own private fortune as well as by a permanent income from the five per cent inheritance tax (vicesima hereditatum et legatorum) and a one per cent excise on sales (centesima rerum venalium). It was managed by three praefecti aerarii militaris selected by lot, under Augustus, for a term of three years, from senators of praetorian rank. Later, the emperor appointed them ; cf. Dio LV.

sixteen years.

25. 2, 3, 5; Tac., Ann. I. 78. 2. Augustus thus describes its institution (M. A. XVII. 3. 35 ff.): M. Lepido et L. Arruntio cos. in aerarium militare, quod ex consilio meo constitutum est, ex quo praemia darentur militibus qui vicena aut plura stipendia emeruissent, HS. milliens et septingentiens ex patrimonio meo detuli.

16. sub manum : immediately, on the instant; cf. Cic., ad Fam. X. 23. 2, Vocontii sub manu ut essent, where sub manu is used in a local

sense.

17. iuvenes primo, etc.: the system of tabellarii and stratores of republican times was now organized and developed by Augustus through the appointment of mounted couriers, stratores or speculatores, to be employed along the principal roads. Stations, mutationes and mansiones, were instituted at which they might relieve one another and spend the night. This arrangement was later supplemented by a transport system for the conveyance of money and other valuables. The vehicula were the light, two-wheeled cisia drawn by mules. Cf. Calig. 44. 2, magnificas Romam litteras misit, monitis speculatoribus ut vehiculo ad forum usque et curiam pertenderent. See Smith, Dict. of Antiq. s.v. cursus publicus.

19. ut: inasmuch as ; introduces possint, which is used with potential force : see Introd. II. § 8. a.

Chapter 50. Seal of the Emperor 22. diplomatibus : diploma (= dlalwua), at first any document on a tablet of two leaves, came to be used particularly of those state documents which assured to the holders the use of the public post in the provinces and other privileges, as well ; our passport'. Cf. Calig. 38. 1, Divorum Iuli et Augusti diplomata ; Ner. 12.1, diplomata civitatis Romanae singulis optulit. The name and seal of the emperor were quite essential on these passports. libellis : petitions ; see note to page 73, line 32 : cf. page 78, line 11, libellum.

23. sphinge usus est : cf. Plin., N. H. XXXVII. 1. 10: Divos Augustus inter initia sphinge signavit. Duas in matris anulis eas indiscretae similitudinis invenerat. Altera per bella civilia absente ipso amici signavere epistulas et edicta quae ratio temporum nomine eius reddi postulabat, non inficeto lepore accipientium, aenigmata adferre eam sphingem. Augustus postea ad evitanda convicia sphingis Alexandri Magni imagine signavit. The sphinx was a symbol of silence. Cf. Dio LI. 3. 6, where it is stated that the seals were made in duplicate.

24. Dioscuridis : cf. Plin., N. H. XXXVII. 1. 8: Post eum Apollonides et Cronius in gloria fuere quique divi Augusti imaginem simillime expressit, qua postea principes signant, Dioscurides. See Pauly-Wissowa, Real Encycl. (new ed.), IX. 1143. qua signare, etc. : with the exception of Galba ; cf. Dio LI. 3. 7.

26. horarum momenta : the exact hour; momenta being used for closer definition of horarum : cf. Hor., Sat. I. 1. 7 f., horae momento, where horae temporis.

27. quibus datae significarentur : to indicate the precise hours at which they had been written. For this use of dare (litteras) compare Cic., ad Att. V. 11. 1: Hui, totiensne me litteras dedisse Romam, cum ad te nullas darem ? At vero posthac frustra potius dabo quam, si recte dari potuerint, committam ut non dem.

Chapter 51. Clemency and Tolerance of Personal Abuse 28. Clementiae civilitatisque, etc. ; cf. Eutrop. VII. 8. 4; XLIV. annis quibus solus gessit imperium civilissime vixit, in cunctos liberalissimus, in amicos fidissimus, quos tantis evexit honoribus ut paene aequaret fastigio suo. That Augustus prided himself on his clemency and moderation may be seen from his mention of the inscription on the golden shield presented to him (M. A. XXXIV. 6. 19 ff.): virtutis clementiae iustitiae pietatis causa. Civilitas is rare in any sense. Suetonius uses it again to mean 6 affability' or · moderation' in Claud. 35. 1, iactator civilitatis. See Introd. II. § 1. b. The severe measures of his early years should be contrasted with this statement; see Aug. 13. 1 f., 27. 1 ff.

29. Ne enumerem, etc. : see Introd. II. § 10. l. quot et quos, etc. : the number and names of those of the opposite party who were pardoned and saved.

31. Iunium. Patavinum : men of the commonalty' (e plebe) not otherwise known.

Page 77. 1. Agrippae : Agrippa Postumus ; see note to page 56, line 21.

2. asperrimam de se epistulam : see Introd. II. § 5. t. in vulgus edidisset : had circulated broadcast.

3. convivio pleno : at a largely attended banquet; cf. page 25, line 8 ; page 91, line 11. neque votum sibi, etc. : he wanted neither the desire nor the heart to stab him to death; cf. page 42, line 21, tribus et viginti plagis confossus est.

5. cognitione : relates to the hearing of a case by the emperor, as distinguished from the ordinary courts. Cf. Claud. 15. 1, negantemque cognitionis rem sed ordinarii iuris esse; while in Claud. 12. 1 we read : Cognitionibus magistratuum ut unus e consiliariis frequenter interfuit. Cordubensi : of Corduba, modern Cordova, the capital of Hispania Baetica, a Roman colony since 152 B.C. and birthplace of the two Senecas and of Lucan. Nothing is known of the resident here mentioned.

6. male opinari : express a bad opinion; cf. page 85, line 17, gravissime de se opinantem; Calig. 27. 3, male de munere suo opinatos.

7. commotoque similis : see Introd. II. § 3. a and II. § 4. i.

8. faciam sciat Aelianus : I'll have Aelianus know, give Aelianus to understand.

13. Aetati tuae : with indulgere, give way to the ardor of) your youth ; cf. Claud. 16. 1, ut aut parcius aetatulae indulgeret aut certe cautius.

16. si hoc habemus, etc. : if we are able to keep any one from doing evil to us.

Hoc anticipates the final clause.

Chapter 52. Temples to Augustus. He Declines the Dictatorship

19. nisi communi suo Romaeque nomine : cf. Tac., Ann. IV. 37. 4, where these words are put into the mouth of Tiberius : Cum divus Augustus sibi atque urbi Romae templum apud Pergamum sisti non prohibuisset, placitum iam exemplum promptius secutus sum.. The temple at Pergamum dates from 29 B.C. Cf. Dio LI. 20. 7.

20. in urbe : Dio (LI. 20. 8) states that this held true for Italy, also. But such shrines were to be seen in Rome and elsewhere after his death; cf. Tac., Ann. I. 10. 8; Dio LVI. 46. 3.

21. argenteas statuas, etc. : Augustus had forbidden the Athenians to erect such statues of any citizen; cf. Dio LIV. 7. 2, LIII. 22. 3.

22. exque iis : and (with the money coined) from them. Cf. M. A. XXIV. 4. 51 ff. : Statuae meae pedestres et equestres et in quadrigeis argenteae steterunt in urbe XXC circiter, quas ipse sustuli exque ea pecunia dona aurea in aede Apollinis meo nomine et illorum qui mihi statuarum honorem habuerunt posui. Wölfflin, in Arch. f. Lat. Lexikogr. XIII (1903), 193 ff., has shown exque ea and exque eis to be archaic and taken from the older formulas. Augustus himself preferred such turns of phrase and Suetonius seems to show direct use of the Res Gestae in this passage. See W. Fürst, Suetons Verhältniss zu der Denkschr. d. Augustus, 13 f. Cf. Introd. II. § 6. k.

23. cortinas : cortina, • kettle', cauldron', from its use at Delphi came to be used for • tripod ', while strictly applicable only to the vessel forming the body of the tripod ; cf. Verg., Aen. III. 92, mugire adytis cortina reclusis. Here the word is applied to tripods used for sacred offerings. Apollini Palatino : see note to page 62, line 25.

24. Dictaturam magna vi, etc. : this was in keeping with Augustus's fixed principle of observing in outward appearance, at least, the constitutional forms of republican times; cf. M. A. V. 1. 31 f. and (Gr.) VIII. 5. 3 ff. ; Dio LIV. 1. 3 f. ; Vell. II. 89. 5. This happened in 22 B.C. on the occasion of a great famine. genu nixus, etc. : note the asyndeton; see Introd. II. § 10. f. (5).

Chapter 53. Dislike of Adulation. Courtesies and Kindness to

Commons and Senate 26. Domini appellationem : the title, 'lord'; see Introd. II. § 4. f. In republican times dominus, master', expressed the relation between master and slaves. It may still have borne the connotation, also, of despotic rule. Tiberius also considered the title as contumeliae causa; cf. Tib. 27 ; Dio (-Xiph.) LV. 12. 2. It was first adopted by Caligula and Domitian. In later times it was used in respectful greeting, like · Sir' or Sire'; cf. Claud. 21. 5, dominos identidem appellans.

28. in mimo: contrary to the usual rule of the Roman stage, political criticism was permitted in these farces, which were acted, without mask and buskins, in front of the curtain as a kind of afterpiece and were largely made up of horseplay and dancing of an indecent character.

30. quasi de ipso dictum : audiences were quick to catch at allusions in the mimes and apply them to the topics of the town; cf. page 86, lines 3 ff. ; Ner. 39. 3.

Page 78. 3. serio . . . ioco : see Introd. II. $ 4. 8. 4. Non temere : see note to page 54, line 6.

6. vespera : in the evening; adverbial. ne quem, etc. : in 30 B.C. it was voted that Vestals, senate and people, including women and children, should go out to meet Augustus when he was to enter the city; cf. Dio LI. 19. 2. He avoided such a public demonstration, however, in 13 B.c. by entering the city at night; just as he was always wont to do, in a word, on setting out as well as upon his return’, Dio (LIV. 25. 4) says, whether he left the city for the suburbs or for some other place, in order to avoid causing annoyance to any of them'. For use of

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