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possessionibus cederent. The person in whose favor the concession is made is in the dative (sibi). See Introd. II. § 4. u.

13. Agrippa : whose first wife was Pomponia, daughter of Atticus. Vipsania, the daughter of this marriage, was betrothed to Tiberius when she was scarcely a year old ; cf. Nep., Att. 12. 1 f., 19. 4. alteram Marcellarum : a daughter of Octavia by M. Claudius Marcellus. According to Plutarch (Ant. LXXXVII), she was married, after her divorce from Agrippa, to the young Antony, son of Mark Antony and Fulvia.

14. Hoc quoque defuncto : Agrippa died in 12 B.C., at the age of fifty-one. He had married Julia nine years before his death.

15. ex equestri ordine : Tacitus (Ann. IV. 40. 8) thus quotes Tiberius : At enim Augustus filiam suam equiti Romano tradere meditatus est. Mirum hercule, si cum in omnis curas distraheretur immensumque attolli provideret quem coniunctione tali super alios extulisset, C. Proculeium et quosdam in sermonibus habuit insigni tranquillitate vitae, nullis rei publicae negotiis permixtos.

16. condicionibus : matches, marriage alliances; cf. page 13, lines 22 f., Octaviam . condicionem ei detulit; Liv. III. 45. 11, sciat . .. condicionem filiae quaerendam esse. See Introd. II. § 2. a. Tiberium privignum, etc. : Tiberius was sincerely fond of Vipsania and quite unwilling to divorce her in favor of Julia, of whom he disapproved ; cf. Tib. 7. 2; Tac., Ann. I. 12. 6. Vipsania had borne one child, Drusus, to Tiberius before her divorce from him. She died in 20 A.D. as the wife of Asinius Gallus ; cf. Tac., Ann. III. 19. 4.

19. Cotisoni Getarum regi, etc. : see note to page 75, line 24. The charge is on a par with others of Antony's devising ; see note to page 47, line 6.

Chapter 64. Grandsons and Granddaughters 23. Agrippam : Agrippa Postumus, put to death by Tiberius in the first year of his reign. Suetonius (Tib. 22) says : Ercessum Augusti non prius palam fecit quam Agrippa iuvene interempto; cf. Tac., Ann. I. 6. 1. See note to page 56, line 21.

24. L. Paulo : son of Paulus Aemilius Lepidus, censor of 22 B.C. See note to page 56, line 15. Germanico : son of the elder (Nero Claudius) Drusus and Antonia, who was the daughter of Octavia and Antony. He became the father of Gaius Caesar, later the emperor Caligula ; see Calig. 1-6.

25. adoptavit: adoptio was the general term both for adoptio of a person alieni iuris and for arrogatio of a person sui iuris. By adoptio a

? person under one potestas passed under another potestas. For the procedure connected with arrogatio see note to page 10, line 8.

26. per assem et libram emptos : the fictitious sale required that a balance, libra, should be touched with a penny, as, in the presence of a praetor ; cf. Gell. V. 19. 1-4. The adoption took place in 17 B.C., when Gaius was in his third year and Lucius was just born; cf. Dio LIV. 18. 1; Tac., Ann. I. 3. 2. tenerosque adhuc, etc. : introduced them to state administration while still of tender years. Augustus himself thus gives the facts (M. A. XIV. 2. 46 ff.): Filios meos, quos iuvenes mihi eripuit fortuna, Gaium et Lucium Caesares honoris mei causa senatus populusque Romanus annum quintum et decimum agentis consules designavit, ut eum magistratum inirent post quinquennium. Et ex eo die quo deducti sunt in forum, ut interessent conciliis publicis decrevit senatus. Equites autem Romani universi principem iuventutis utrumque eorum parmis et hastis argenteis donatum appellaverunt. Gaius was born in 20 b.c. and was consul designate in 5 B.C. Lucius was born in 17 B.C. and was consul designate in 2 B.C. Gaius was consul of 1 A.D. ; Lucius was to have been consul of 4 A.D., but died in 2 A.D. The title of princeps iuventutis is analogous to princeps senatus. It was apparently new at this time. Cf. Tac., Ann. I. 3. 2 f. ; Dio LV. 9. 2 ; Zon. X. 35.

28. circum provincias, etc. : see Introd. II. $ 5. f. (1). Gaius was in the East from 1 B.c. until his death in 4 A.D. ; cf. Tac., Ann. II. 4. 2, III. 48. 2 ; Dio LV. 10 a. 4, 9. Lucius died at Marseilles en route to Spain in 2 A.D. ; cf. Dio LV. 10 a. 9 f. ; Tac., Ann. I. 3. 3.

29. lanificio assuefaceret: had them trained in the working of wool; i.e. spinning and weaving, in imitation of more primitive times.

31. quod in diurnos commentarios referretur : what might be recorded in the household diary. “The custom of keeping such a record of events of the imperial household apparently dated from the time of Augustus. The official commentarii of the emperors, such as are mentioned in Dom. 20, commentarios et acta Tiberi Caesaris, were kept by slaves and freedmen and were quite different from the diurni commentarii here mentioned. See Friedländer, Rom. Life and Manners (Engl. Transl.), IV. 56. Macé (Essai sur Suétone, 188 f.), however, vigorously attacks this explanation of diurni commentarii, which has been accepted by Peter, Shuckburgh and others. Macé thinks the phrase refers to the acta diurna, or “Daily Gazette? ; see note to page 9, line 8. The passage quoted (Dom. 20) would seem to indicate, however, that Suetonius used acta and commentarii with different connotations ; cf., also, Gram. 4, 5, 10, 18; Jul. 56. 1-3 ; Tib. 61. 1.

32. L. Vinicio : a Vinicius is mentioned in Aug. 71. 2 as a guest of Augustus at dinner ; possibly, the same as the one here mentioned. He has not been identified.


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Page 83. 2. Baias : modern Baia, on the bay of that name, some ten miles from the Naples of to-day, was the most splendid watering-place of ancient Rome. Horace's wealthy Roman exclaims (Ep. I. 1. 83): Nullus in orbe sinus Bais praelucet amoenis; cf. Hor., Od. III. 4. 24, Seu liquidae placuere Baiae.

4. per se plerumque : it was customary to have private tutors, who were usually slaves or freedmen. Suetonius (Gram. 17) mentions M. Verrius Flaccus as a tutor of Augustus's grandsons. nihil aeque elaboravit, etc. : he never took as much pains with anything as to have them imitate his own handwriting ; cf. Aug. 88.

6. una : in their company, as J. C. Rolfe translates the word. nisi ut in imo lecto assiderent: without having them sit beside him on the lowest couch; i.e. on the imus lectus, where the summus locus was regularly occupied by the host, next to the guest of honor in the imus locus of the medius lectus. The couch on the third side of the table was called the summus lectus and, like each of the other two couches, accommodated three guests. The fourth side of the table was left open to make it accessible to the servants. See Hor., Sat. II. 8. 20 ff., for an amusing description of a dinner party. Children customarily sat, instead of reclining, at table ; cf. Claud. 32 : Adhibebat omni cenae et liberos suos cum pueris puellisque nobilibus, qui more veteri ad fulcra lectorum sedentes vescerentur. Tacitus (Ann. XIII. 16. 1) explains what was the mos vetus : Mos habebatur principum liberos cum ceteris idem aetatis nobilibus sedentis vesci in aspectu propinquorum propria et parciore mensa.

7. nisi ut vehiculo, etc. : without having them precede his carriage or ride close by it on each side. Nisi ut, except on condition that’, is post-classical, according to Gildersleeve-Lodge, Lat. Gram.3, 591. (b). 2. Rem. 2. 3. circa : adverbial ; see Introd. II. § 5. f. (4).


Chapter 65. Family Losses. Adoption of Tiberius. Banishment

of Daughter and Granddaughter 9. Iulias, filiam et neptem, etc. : for the three marriages of the elder Julia see Aug. 63, with notes. In spite of Tiberius's feelings towards her at first, Suetonius ( Tib. 7. 3) states that their married life was harmonious until the death of their only child widened the breach that had previously been made between them. In 6 s.c. Tiberius went to Rhodes,


leaving Julia in Rome, and from there sent her a notice of divorce ; cf. Dio LV. 9. 5 ff. ; Tib. 11. 4. All authorities are agreed as to her notorious vices ; cf. Tac., Ann. III. 24. 2 ; Vell. II. 100. 3 ; Sen., de Ben. VI. 32. 1; Dio LV. 10. 12 ff. Macrobius (Sat. II. 5) has given an account of some of her sayings and her personal traits. Among those men who suffered for their escapades with Julia were Iulus Antonius, who was put to death

on the ground that he had actually committed this act with a view to the sovereignty' (Dio LV. 10. 15), and Gracchus, who was sent into exile (Tac., Ann. I. 53. 6). After five years on Pandataria she was removed to Rhegium, but survived her father only a few weeks. Cf. Tac., Ann. I. 53. 1, and see note to page 56, line 21. The younger Julia had a son and a daughter by her husband Lepidus ; see note to page 82, line 24, and cf. Calig. 24. 3, Claud. 26. 1. She followed in her mother's footsteps and was banished to the island of Trimerus, possibly the modern S. Domenico off the coast of Apulia ; cf. Tac., Ann. III. 24. 2, IV. 71. 6. Ovid's disgrace has been associated by some with the younger Julia's.

10. C. et L. ... amisit: Lucius died at Marseilles on August 20, 2 A.D. ; Gaius, at Limyra in Lycia on February 21, 4 A.D. See notes to page 82, lines 26 and 28.

11. Gaio ... Lucio ... defunctis : notice the ablative absolute construction with the same persons as the direct object of amisit. See Introd. II. § 4. v.

12. Agrippam : Agrippa Postumus (born after his father's death in 12 b.c.), whose banishment to Planasia in 7 A.D. Tacitus attributes to Livia's jealousy on behalf of Tiberius. Tacitus (Ann. I. 3. 4) characterizes him as rudem sane bonarum artium et robore corporis stolide ferocem, nullius tamen flagitii conpertum. It seems that Augustus not only visited him in exile, but was inclined to recall him. Cf. Tac., Ann. I. 5. 2, and see notes to page 56, line 21, and page 82, line 23.

13. simulque privignum, etc.: June 26, 4 A.D. According to Dio (LV. 22. 4), Agrippa did not assume the toga virilis until the following year. Cf. Tib. 15. 2; Vell. II. 104. 1. lege curiata : for adoption by arrogatio see notes to page 10, line 8 and page 82, line 25. A formal rogatio occurred, the wording of which Gellius gives (V. 19. 9).

14. ob ingenium, etc. : cf. Dio LV. 32. 1 f.; Tac., Ann. I. 3. 4; Vell. II. 112. 7.

15. abdicavit: disinherited; a post-Augustan usage ; cf. Tib. 15. 2, Agrippa abdicato atque seposito. seposuitque Surrentum : he was sequestered at Surrentum, modern Sorrento, across the bay from Naples, before his relegatio to Planasia ; see note to line 12, above.

18. absens ac libello . . . recitato : see Introd. II. § 10. a. per quaestorem : the consuls had their quaestors and so the emperor, as holding consular authority, had his two quaestores Caesaris who brought and read messages from the emperor to the senate ; cf. Ner. 15. 2: orationes ad senatum missas praeterito quaestoris officio per consulem plerumque recitabat; Tac., Ann. XVI. 27. 2 : oratio principis per quaestorem eius audita est; Dio LIV. 25. 5, LX. 2. 2.

20. de necanda : sc. ea; see Introd. II. § 10. d. (2). 22. maluisse se, etc. : cf. Dio LV. 10. 16.

23. Relegatae : sc. ei, i.e. Iuliae ; see Introd. II. § 10. d. (2). For the case of ei see Introd. II. § 4. k. omnemque delicatiorem cultum : all the more luxurious refinements of life.

25. nisi se consulto : see Introd. II. $ 6. l. ita ut certior fieret: not without his being informed; see Introd. II. $ 8. m.

28. in continentem : to Rhegium, on the Sicilian straits ; see note to line 12, above, with references. lenioribusque paulo condicionibus : and on somewhat milder terms. Note the collocation of the phrase, united, as it is, with in continentem ; see Introd. II. § 10. a.

30. deprecanti saepe, etc.: Dio (-Xiph.) says (LV. 13. 1): “He said fire would combine with water sooner than she would be recalled.'

Page 84. 2. in insulam : i.e. Planasia ; see note to page 83, line 12.

3. custodia militum : Agrippa was, probably, slain by the centurion of this guard ; cf. Tac., Ann. I. 6. 1 f.

4. eodem loci : rare, but Ciceronian ; cf. ad Att. I. 13. 5, Res eodem est loci quo reliquisti.

7. Aro' obedov, etc.: would that I had perished unmarried and childless; cf. Hoin., I. III. 40, where, with the verbs in the second person and an interchange of the position of the adjectives, Hector addresses Paris. See Leaf's note on the Homeric verse.

8. tris vomicas, etc.: his trio of boils and trio of ulcers, or cancers ; coarse terms of reproach : cf. Quint., Inst. VIII. 6. 15, Persecuisti rei publicae vomicas. Carcinomata is a borrowed word : Introd. II. $ 1. d.

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Chapter 66. Augustus's Friendships. Treatment of Legacies

13. Neque . temere : see note to page 54, line 6.

14. afflicti : sc. esse ; came to their ruin : see Introd. II. $ 10. d. (1). (Q.) Salvidienum Rufum : early in life a devoted partisan of Octavian. He and Agrippa were with Octavius at Apollonia when news came of

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