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Caesar's murder ; cf. Vell. II. 59, 5. He was active in the war of Perusia and afterwards commanded a fleet against Sextus Pompeius ; cf. Dio XLVIII. 13. 4, 18. 1f. He was designated consul, but seems to have formed some treasonable conspiracy against Augustus in 40 s.c. and was executed ; cf. Dio XLVIII. 33. 1-3; App., B.C. V. 66. 278 f.

15. Cornelium Gallum : born at Forum Julii, modern Fréjus, in Gaul about 68-66 B.C., he came to Rome at an early age to begin his career as a poet. He embraced Octavian's party and was one of the commissioners of 41 B.c. to distribute lands to his veterans in the north of Italy, when he protected Mantua and Vergil's estate. He is the Gallus of Vergil's tenth Eclogue. After Actium he was sent to Egypt in pursuit of Antony and was later appointed the first prefect of the province of Egypt, where he remained four years, only to incur the enmity of Augustus and be driven to take his own life ; cf. Dio LI. 9. 1 ff., 17. 1 ; LIII. 23. 5 ff. He was an intimate friend of the most eminent men of his time and possessed great intellectual attainments, but all his works have perished.

16. praefecturam Aegypti : see note to page 56, line 2.

19. provinciis suis : the imperial provinces; see note to page 75, line 8. Cf. Dio LIII. 23. 6: 'He was subjected to indignity by Augustus to the extent of actually being prevented from living among his nations.'

20. quoque : i.e. as well as Salvidienus, who, however, was executed, according to Dio and Appian ; see note to line 14, above. accusatorum denuntiationibus, etc.: the accusations of Valerius Largus, a friend turned traitor, were quickly followed by those of many others. The senate then decreed his legal conviction and the confiscation and transfer of his property to Augustus. Largus was not in popular favor after this act of treachery. Cf. Dio LIII. 23. 6–24. 3.

24. quod sibi soli, etc. : because he alone was not allowed to go only as far as he liked in his anger towards his friends. The emperor's anger must needs be fatal, while men in private station could effect a reconciliation after quarrels with their friends.

25. Reliqui, etc.: note the adversative asyndeton; see Introd. II. § 10. f. (4).

26. sui quisque ordinis principes : holding each a leading position in his own station; whether he belonged to the ordo senatorius, equester, or plebeius.

27. quanquam et offensis intervenientibus : although there were also occasional disagreements; see Introd. II. $ 6. l. Desideravit : missed, in the sense of “failed to find ', in the incidents mentioned, what he had previously found to be characteristics of the men in question.

29. ex levi frigoris, etc. : note the two different ways of expressing cause ; see Introd. II. § 10. a.

30. frigoris : coldness on the part of Augustus. The reading of the MSS., rigoris, is evidently a mistake. Lipsius's emendation is accepted by Ihm and is to be preferred.

31. Mytilenas se contulisset : Dio explains Agrippa's mission to Syria in 23 B.C, as due to jealousy existing between Marcellus and the statesman. Suetonius ( Tib. 10. 1) gives a similar account : exemplo M. Agrippae, qui M. Marcello ad munera publica admoto Mytilenas abierit ne aut obstare aut obtrectare praesens videretur. The real reason, however, for the mission is given by Josephus (Ant. Jud. XV. 10. 2 f.), as has been shown by D. Magie, Jr., in class. Phil. III (1908). 145 ff. Agrippa himself went only to Mytilene and wintered there, while his legates were sent to Phraates to suggest the possible restoration of his

These overtures were successful and resulted in the return of the standards by the Parthians ; see note to page 57, line 29. Agrippa meanwhile prepared the way for Augustus's prospective tour of the East. In the winter of 22–21 B.c. he returned to Sicily and soon afterward received Julia's hand in marriage. Cf. Dio LIII. 31. 2–32. 1 ; LIV. 6. 5.

son.

Page 85. 1. Murenae coniuratione : see note to page 56, line 14. uxori Terentiae : whatever the cause of the retirement of Maecenas in 16 B.C., the voice of scandal had linked the names of Augustus and Terentia ; cf. Dio LIV. 19. 3, and see note to page 86, line 10. Suetonius explains Maecenas's retirement from public life on the ground of Terentia's having been enabled to put her brother on his guard. In any event, Maecenas remained in seclusion, chiefly in his Esquiline villa, until his death in 8 B.C. ; cf. Dio LIV. 19. 6, LV. 7. 1; Tac., Ann. III. 30. 6; XIV. 53. 3.

4. a defunctis : see note to page 79, line 5. One of Nero's provisions was ut ingratorum in principem testamenta ad fiscum pertinerent; see Ner. 32. 2. Cf. Tac., Ann. III. 76. 2, XIV. 31. 1, XVI. 11. 2 ; Agr. 43. 4 ; Plin., Pan. 43. 1 ; Calig. 38. 2.

5. ut qui . . . sustinuerit : see Introd. II. § 8. j.

7. iudicia : expressions of opinion, as indicating approval or disapprobation. morosissime : very scrupulously; with an excessive degree of carefulness : cf. page 23, line 20, Circa corporis curam morosior.

8. citra honorem verborum : without paying him a tribute of honor; see Introd. II. $ 5. g. (2).

9. si grate pieque, etc. : if any one had honored him with grateful and affectionate mention; cf. Ner. 34. 2, hilare prosecutus. See Introd. II. $ 7. h.

12. si pupillari aetate essent : if they were in their minority; i.e. under fourteen for males, twelve for females.

Chapter 67. Augustus as Patron and Master 14. Patronus dominusque : patronus of his freedmen, dominus of his slaves.

16. Licinum et Celadum : not otherwise known.
17. gravissime de se opinantem : see note to page 77, line 6.

18. dispensatorem : steward, manager of the imperial treasury ; usually one of the most trustworthy slaves. Cf. Ner. 44. 1 : nec nisi ex tota cuiusque familia probatissimos, ne dispensatoribus quidem aut amanuensibus exceptis, recepit; Galb. 12. 3, dispensatori breviarium rationum offerenti; Vesp. 22, admonente dispensatore quem ad modum summam rationibus vellet inferri.

21. non minimi periculi : see Introd. II. $ 10. k and, for the case, II. § 4. b. fraus : intentional deceit, or rascality.

23. compertum adulterare : note the personal use of compertum with following infinitive. Thallo a manu : his secretary Thallus; idiomatic use of the preposition : see Introd. II. § 5. a. (5). Suetonius also uses amanuensis in the same meaning ; cf. Ner. 44. 1, quoted in note to line 18, above; Tit. 3. 2. See page 36, line 12, a manu servum ; Claud. 28, Narcissum ab epistulis et Pallantem a rationibus, where the phrases are used for secretary' and · accountant’, respectively.

25. ei : resumes Thallo after the intervening modifiers, but is pleonastic.

26. per occasionem : see Introd. II. § 5. n. (3). superbe avareque, etc. : because they had committed acts of arrogance and greed in a province; see note to page 83, line 10.

28. praecipitavit : had them thrown headlong; a form of punishment more common, perhaps, in the Orient than at Rome. On the use of praecipitare see note to page 61, line 20.

Chapter 68. Scandalous Tales 29. Prima iuventa, etc. : it is to be noted that these incredibly libeious stories proceed from his pronounced enemies. They are the height of coarse invective and need not occasion undue surprise, however revolting, when their source is considered. Cf. Cic., Phil. III. 6. 15: Primum in Caesarem maledicta congessit deprompta ex recordatione impudicitiae et stuprorum suorum! Quis enim hoc adolescente castior ? Quis modestior ? Quod in iuventute habemus illustrius exemplum veteris sanctitatis ? Quis autem illo, qui male dicit, impurior ? See page 87, line 24, sive criminibus sive maledictis.

30. effeminatum := pathicum.

32. quasi pudicitiam, etc. : for the use of the quasi-clause see Introd. II. § 8. i.

Page 86. 4. in contumeliam : see Introd. II. $ 5. k. (1). (a). 6. gallo : a priest of Cybele (matris deum); cf. Ov., Fast. IV. 361 f. :

Cur igitur Gallos, qui se excidere, vocamus

Cum tanto Phrygia Gallica distet humus ? These eunuchs took part in the Megalensia, the festival of the Magna Mater, on April fourth. No Romans were allowed to participate in any of the rites of Cybele from the time of their introduction to Rome in 204 s.c.

See Fowler, Rom. Fest. 69 ff. tympanizante : beating his drum ; see Introd. II. § 1. d. Cf. Juv. VIII. 176, Et resupinati cessantia tympana Galli. The wild and orgiastic excesses of the worship are familiar to all.

8. Videsne, etc. : there is a double play on orbem, “round drum' and • world', and temperat, · handles’ and · sways'.

Chapter 69. Sexual Irregularities 10. ratione commissa : as the result of calculation, for political reasons. quo facilius, etc. : his relations with Terentia were ascribed to this cause. See note to page 85, line 1.

12. super festinatas, etc. : see note to page 82, line 4. Super = praeter; see Introd. II. § 5. r. 2. (c). Cf. Dio XLVIII. 44. 2 for the reply of the pontiffs on the occasion of this marriage.

15. auriculis : diminutive ; see Introd. II. § 1. e.

16. liberius doluisset : had been too outspoken in deploring. paelicis : in Antony's mouth, might refer to Livia.

17. condiciones : paramours; here of illicit amours. See note to page 82, line 16. matres familias : matrons. For the archaic form of the genitive see Lindsay, Short Hist. Lat. Gram. 2 49. Cf. page 81, line 3, patrum familiarum.

19. tamquam vendente : see Introd. II. § 6. l. mangone : dealer in slaves, whose value he tries to enhance by external adornment. Cf. Sen., Ep. Mor. XI. 1. 9 : Mangones quicquid est quod displiceat aliquo lenocinio abscondunt: itaque ementibus ornamenta ipsa suspecta sunt; sive crus adligatum sive brachium adspiceres, nudari iuberes et ipsum tibi corpus ostendi.

20. inimicus aut hostis : an enemy in his private or public capacity.

22. abhinc annos novem :- Antony could hardly speak of Cleopatra as uxor before his divorce from Octavia in 32 B.C. He first came under her influence, however, near the end of 41 b.c. Cf. Dio XLVIII. 24. 2, L. 3. 2. The true Roman regarded such union with a foreigner with abhorrence, not because of the immorality so much as on account of the marriage itself.

23. Drusillam : Livia ; see note to page 82, line 4. 24. Ita valeas uti, etc. : see Introd. II. $ 8. m.

25. Tertullam, etc. : diminutives of the names, Tertia, Terentia, Rufa, etc. Terentia is, of course, the wife of Maecenas ; see note to page 85, line 1.

Chapter 70. “Dinner of the Twelve Gods.' Idiosyncrasies 28. secretior : rather exclusive. in fabulis : the subject of gossip; one of the town topics.

29. Swdekádeos : that of the twelve gods. The porticus Deorum Consentium may still be seen at Rome in its restored form. Possibly, statues of the twelve Olympian deities once stood in this colonnade. Gilded statues of these gods — Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Minerva, Apollo, Diana, Mars, Venus, Vulcan, Vesta, Mercury, Ceres — had stood in this part of the Forum from very early times. Cf. Varr., R. R. I. 1. 4 and see Platner, Anc. Rome 2, 177 f. The shock experienced by religious feelings at such a reported profanation may readily be realized. It was the figures of these twelve gods that were placed in pairs on the couches of the lectisternium.

30. pro Apolline : to represent Apollo, who virtually became the patron god of the emperors from the time of Augustus, who paid him special honor ; see notes to page 56, line 9; page 62, line 25; and page 64, line 25.

Page 87. 1. sine auctore : anonymous. A theory as to the authorship of the epigram is given in the note to page 48, line 5.

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