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(2) With a following quam, still governing an accusative:

ante paucos dies quam aedilitatem iniret, Jul. 9.1; ante paucos quam nasceretur menses, Aug. 94. 3.

e. Apud : equivalent to in and the ablative, or the locative, of cities, islands and other places :

apud easdem aras, Aug. 94. 5; apud Actium, Aug. 17. 2; Apud insulam Capreas, Aug. 92. 2 ; apud Hierosolyma, Aug. 93.

f. Circa, Circum :

(1) Around to or around through':

libellos circum tribum missos, Jul. 41. 2; consules designatos circum provincias exercitusque dimisit, Aug. 64. 1.

(2) Of retinue or attendants, in an attributive phrase: Omnibus vero circa eum obstrictis, Jul. 27. 1.

.

(3) Equivalent to de:

Circa corporis curam morosior, Jul. 45. 2; Circa libidines haesit, Aug. 71. 1.

(4) Adverbial, of proximity :
nisi ut ... circa adequitarent, Aug. 64. 3.

g. Citra :

(1) Of time, equivalent to ante : citra spectaculorum dies, Aug. 43. 4.

(2) Equivalent to sine:

citra senatus populique auctoritatem, Jul. 28. 1 ; citra commoda, Aug. 24. 2; citra honorem verborum, Aug. 66. 4. So ultra praescriptum, Jul. 28. 3.

h. Contra :

(1) 'Facing':

contra praetoris tribunal, Aug. 44.3; iacens contra solis exortum, Aug. 94. 6.

(2) • On the other hand':
Simultates contra . excepit, Jul. 73.
i. De:

(1) For the more usual ex: de Cleopatra liberis, Aug. 17. 1.

(2) In abbreviated expressions :

tropaea Gai Mari de Jugurtha deque Cimbris atque Teutonis, Jul. 11; praecipua militiae laus de tam inbelli genere hostium, Jul. 35. 2.

j. Ex:

(1) Equivalent to post :

ex praetura proficiscens, Jul. 71 ; Ex praetura

sortitus, Aug. 3. 1.

.

(2) In adverbial phrases:

e diverso (= contra), Jul. 86. 2 ; ex inproviso, Aug. 16.3; ex occasione (= occasione data), Jul. 60.

k. In :

(1) With the accusative:
(a) To express design or purpose, = ad:

in filiae memoriam, Jul. 26. 2 ; in puerilem habitum, Aug. 45. 4 ; In restitutionem Palatinae domus, Aug. 57. 2.

(b) Of time:

in reliquum anni tempus, Jul. 14. 2; in ternos novissimos menses, Jul. 76. 2; in noctem, Aug. 33. 1 ; in serum, Aug. 17. 2.

(©) After adjectives :
Pronum et sumptuosum in libidines, Jul. 50. 1.

(2) With the ablative:
(a) Of time, where the best writers would omit it:

in aetate qua iam Alexander . . . subegisset, Jul. 7.1; in illo temporis spatio, Aug. 78.1 ; especially in phrases like In consulatu, Aug. 53. 2 ; in senecta, Aug. 79. 2 ; in transitu, Jul. 56. 5; in traiectu, Aug. 17.3.

(6) With the gerundive, following an adjective: in capite comendo tam incuriosus, Aug. 79. 1.

1. Inter :

(1) Equivalent to apud: professus ante inter suos, Jul. 34. 2 ; domi et inter suos, Aug. 61. 1. (2) Of time:

inter publicas caerimonias, Jul. 6. 2 ; Inter quae, Jul. 26.1; inter res agendas, Jul. 45. 1 ; Inter cenam,

Aug. 71. 2. m. Intra : as an adverb, a post-Augustan usage : intraque lectus . . . stratus, Jul. 84. 1. n. Per :

(1) In a distributive sense :
per centurias, Jul. 19.1; per singulos lectos, Aug. 75.

(2) In a temporal sense, = inter: per comitia ( = dum comitia habentur), Jul. 80. 4 ; per quietem, Jul.

ludos, Aug. 44. 1.

7.2 ; per

(3) In adverbial phrases :

per causam, Jul. 2; per iocum, Jul. 20.2; per iram, Aug. 54; per occasionem, Aug. 67.2 ; per arma, Jul. 16. 1.

0. Post:

post tres liberos (= tribus liberis natis), Jul. 50. 1.

p. Secundum : equivalent to per:

secundum quietem, Aug. 94. 9.

q. Sub: to express limitation or exception :

sub exceptione, Jul. 78. 2 ; sub condicione ( = ea condicione), Jul. 68.1; sub lege, Aug. 21. 2.

r. Super :
(1) With the ablative: equivalent to de:
super tali consternatione, Jul. 20. 1.

(2) With the accusative:

(a) Equivalent to inter: super cenam, Aug. 77.

(6) Equivalent to plus, amplius, plures quam :
super sestertium milies, Jul. 26. 2 ; super mille, Aug. 35. 1.

(c) Equivalent to praeter :

super bina sestertia, Jul. 38. 1 ; super templa et aras, Aug. 59; super festinatas Liviae nuptias, Aug. 69. 1.

(3) As an adverb, = insuper : superque .. exornans, Jul. 28. 1.

8. Tenus :

(1) In a temporal sense : Cantabrico tenus bello, Aug. 85. 1.

(2) In a transferred sense: titulo tenus (= nomine), Jul. 76. 2.

t. Prepositional phrases are frequently found as attributive modifiers of nouns :

genere panis ex herba, Jul. 68.2; appellationem mensis e suo nomine, Jul. 76.1; tristia et sine corde exta, Jul. 77 ; nuntiis de seditione, Aug. 17.3; collegam patris . .. in aedilitate, Aug. 27.1 ; asperrimam de se epistulam, Aug. 51. 1.

§ 6. ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS a. Adverbs are used attributively: quater consulis, Jul. 1. 1.

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C. Atque stands for quam after a comparative: gravius atque ipse sensisset exceptam, Jul. 14. 1.

d. Et is very commonly used for etiam : Dilexit et reginas, Jul. 52. 1.

So sed et is often found for sed etiam, following non modo, non solum :

non tribunatum modo . . . sed et praefecturas, Aug. 38. 2 ; with etiam added : Non enim honores modo . . . sed et ampliora etiam, Jul. 76. 1.

e. Sed et is often used at the beginning of a chapter or period in the sense of ållà un kaí, “and what is more’:

sed et statuas reposuit, Jul. 75. 4.

f. Igitur occurs at the beginning of a sentence :

Igitur grassaturas . . . inhibuit, Aug. 32. 1 ; Igitur .. Jul. 19. 2.

creatur,

g. Itaque is often postpositive: Crebro itaque illa iactabat, Aug. 25. 4.

h. Item is often equivalent to et or etiam:

(1) In enumerations : Lecticarum usum, item conchyliatae vestis et margaritarum, Jul. 43. 1.

(2) To recall the verb of the first clause:

pronuntiavit senatus consultum ... item ius iurandum, Jul. 84. 2 ; item navale proelium, Aug. 43. 1.

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