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i. Mox always has the meaning, usual in Silver Latin, of afterward':

Mox et ipse . . . optinuit, Jul. 23.1 ; nec mox occasio . . . fuit, Aug. 47. j. Neque is sometimes equivalent to neque vero, nec tamen,

quidem : Nec obtinuit, Jul. 11 ; Sed nec Tiberio parcit, Aug. 86. 2.

ne ...

k. -Que is appended to prepositions:
deque, Jul. 11 ; exque, Aug. 52 ; perque, Jul. 1. 2.

l. Non nisi, priusquam, quamvis, quasi, quamquam and tamquam are freely used with the ablative absolute:

non nisi transversa charta, Jul. 56. 6; quanquam ... morbo variante, Aug. 98.5; quamvis nullo querente, Jul. 48 ; quasi debita ... dominatione, Aug. 19. 2.

m. These and other conjunctions are also used with adjectives and participles :

non nisi scriptos, Aug. 84. 2 ; neque . . . ante . . . quam paene obrutus, Jul. 58. 2 ; quanquam patricius, Aug. 10. 2 ; quamvis recusantem, Jul. 70; velut . . . exceptam, Jul. 14. 1.

n. Tamquam and (more often) quasi are used, as in Tacitus, to introduce a clause with the subjunctive where the infinitive with subject accusative might be expected :

tenet . . . opinio tamquam et natus ibi sit, Aug. 6; concepta opinione veteri quasi ... obiciatur, Aug. 6 ; rumore ... . dilato quasi ... necasset, Aug. 14; somnium ... exponunt, quasi . . . demonstrasset, Aug. 94. 8.

$ 7. TENSES

a. The present indicative is frequently used in quoting authorities :

Idem Curio sed et M. Actorius Naso auctores sunt, Jul. 9. 3 ; ut scribit, Aug. 62. 2 ; Verba ipsius . . . sunt, Aug. 76. 1.

6. The historical present is very rarely used :

Igitur cum Bibulo consul creatur, Jul. 19. 2 ; aversum vulnerat, Jul. 82. 1.

c. The perfect indicative is found in the apodosis of a past general condition or its equivalent, where the imperfect would be more usual :

si qua posthac aut cogitarentur .. aut dicerentur, inhibere maluit, Jul. 75. 4 ; potestatem semper omnibus fecit quotiens vellent obsides recipiendi, Aug. 21. 2.

d. The present subjunctive is sometimes used where we should expect the imperfect :

elegit, cuius emolumento ... sit, Jul. 22. 1; censuit . . qui . . edant, Aug. 55.

e. No other writer uses the perfect subjunctive more freely for the imperfect or pluperfect in subordinate clauses :

(1) After ut consecutive, in larger proportion, apparently, than the imperfect, even where there is no aoristic idea : si flumina morarentur, ut persaepe

praevenerit, Jul. 57 ; adeo suspecta mors fuit ut custoditus sit, Aug. 11.

(2) When preceded by ut qui (= quippe qui): dedit, ut qui . . . abstulerit, Jul. 54. 3.

(3) When preceded by some relative conjunction :

intolerabilius est visum quod ipse . indignatus sit, Jul. 78. 2; valuit, quanquam . responderit, Jul. 79. 2.

(4) In indirect discourse: Sullam nescisse litteras, qui dictaturam deposuerit, Jul. 77 ; nec prius venisse quam

fugatae sint, Aug. 16. 2.

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More notable still is the union of imperfect and perfect

tive in the same clause :

manerent ac

tantum undique confluxit hominum ut plerique saepe ... elisi exanimatique sint, Jul. 39. 4.

g. On the contrary, the imperfect subjunctive occurs for the perfect in consecutive clauses to express a single act: Eoque arrogantiae progressus est ut ... diceret, Jul. 77 ; evenit ut

inveniretur, Aug. 6; tam arto repente somno devinctus ut .. excitaretur, Aug. 16. 1 ; evenit ut caderet supinus, Aug. 43. 5.

h. In the compound tenses of the passive Suetonius often uses fueram, fuissem, etc., for eram, essem, etc. :

fuerat occisus, Jul. 84. 1 ; fuerat usus, Aug. 18. 2 ; prosecutus fuisset, Aug. 66. 4.

$ 8. Moods

is very

a. The potential subjunctive, especially in the perfect tense,

often used in modest affirmations : maiora etiam indicia fuerint, Jul. 63; satis certa probatione tradiderim, Aug. 7. 1 ; praebitam Antonio materiam putem, Aug. 16. 2.

b. The perfect indicative occurs in the apodosis of an unreal condition in past time:

penetravit, nisi . . . recusasset, Jul. 52. 1.

C. Tenses of the indicative are sometimes retained in subordinate clauses of indirect discourse, and where attraction to the subjunctive might be expected :

quia . . . responderat, Jul. 46 ; quos tenebat, Jul. 64 ; ut destinarat, Aug. 79. 1.

d. The imperfect subjunctive is used with antequam, priusquam and pridie quam in the statement of facts, where the earlier writers would have used the perfect indicative:

ante paucos quam nasceretur menses, Aug. 94. 3 ; prius quam pareret, Aug. 94. 4 ; pridie quam occideretur, Jul. 87.

e. Cum primum occurs with the subjunctive where the perfect indicative would be the regular construction :

..

Cum primum fari coepisset, Aug. 94. 7.

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f. Dum, 'while', is regularly followed by the present indicative, but is found once with the imperfect subjunctive: dum ..

deportaretur, Aug. 78. 2.

g. The subjunctive often follows quamquam : quamquam .. invitaretur, Jul. 3.

h. The subjunctive of iteration or generalization is frequently used in temporal and conditional clauses :

non cum obsiderentur modo sed et si ipsi alios obsiderent, Jul. 68. 2 ; Quidquid . militum esset, Aug. 49. 2 ; prout libuisset, Aug. 35. 4 ; quotiensque opus esset, Aug. 37.

i. The subjunctive is used, as in Tacitus, in clauses introduced by tamquam and quasi to express the alleged or imagined reason of a charge or belief:

quasi Cornelius is esset, Jul. 85 ; quasi ... indidisset, Aug. 11 ; quasi ... iactassent, Aug. 12; tamquam educaretur, Aug. 94. 8 (in indirect discourse).

j. The subjunctive in causal clauses after ut qui is used for the more common quippe qui and the subjunctive:

ut qui . sustinuerit, Aug. 66. 4 ; ut in quibus essent, Aug. 72. 1.

k. Substantive clauses are frequently used without ut after verbs of asking, admonishing, commanding and the like: egit ... id potius . . . ferrent, Jul. 26.1; instituit . subsortitio a praetore fieret, Jul. 41. 3 ; hortatur et monet imitetur, Aug. 3. 2.

l. These substantive clauses are sometimes used where some other form of expression might be expected :

hoc quoque adiecit, ne . adipisceretur, Aug. 40. 4; ambirent ... ne filias in sortem darent, Aug. 31. 3 ; rettulit ut ei succederetur, Jul. 28. 2; temptavit . . . ut sibi Aegyptus daretur, Jul. 11.

m. Clauses introduced by ut, often preceded by ita and similar words, are used to express a restriction or proviso: ita magnos

esse voluit ut tamen pari iure essent, Aug. 56. 2 ; sed ut expergisceretur, Aug. 78. 1 ; non tamen ut auderet, Aug. 89. 1 ; sed ut . . . redierint, Jul. 69.

$ 9. PARTICIPLES, INFINITIVES, GERUNDS AND GERUNDIVES

a. No writer, probably, uses a larger number of participles than Suetonius, who employs them in a variety of constructions, often for the sake of greater brevity, but hardly with the admirable perspicuity of Livy. Eight, ten or more participles occur in a single period :

eight in a sentence of five lines in Jul. 62 ; ten in a somewhat longer sentence in Aug. 16. 1, Siculum bellum ... effecit; fourteen in a single long period in Aug. 27. 3 f., Nam et Pinarium ... insidiis perisse.

(1) The future active participle is often used to express purpose or design, as in Greek, as well as time and other relations :

successuri sibi, Jul. 21 ; quam primum transfretaturi, Jul. 34. 1; vindicaturus si quid ... constitutum esset, Jul. 30.1 ; Tiberium dimissurus et Beneventum usque prosecuturus, Aug. 97.3.

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(2) The perfect participle is commonly used in the present sense after Livy's time:

nando evasit . . . elata laeva . . . trahens, Jul. 64 ; subsecutus, Aug. 8.1.

(3) The present is sometimes used because of the lack of a perfect active participle:

Ac subinde ... admonens, Jul. 65.

(4) The impersonal use of the participle in the ablative absolute occurs, often with the force of an adverb:

augurato, Aug. 7. 2; consulto, Jul. 56. 4; sortito, Aug. 30. 1.

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