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(5) The participle is also used in the ablative absolute with the subject omitted, but readily supplied :

absoluto, Jul. 4.1; trucidatis quos placitum esset, Jul. 9.1; absterrito, Jul. 20. 3 ; non audentibus facere quibus optigerat, Aug. 10. 1.

(6) Participles used as adjectives are freely compared :

cautior an audentior, Jul. 58.1 ; deductiorem, Aug. 79.2 ; despectissimum, Jul. 59.

b. (1) The infinitive, both with and without subject accusative, is frequently used after verbs and expressions where a different construction would be expected in the writers of classical prose :

Feminis . . . spectare concessit, Aug. 44. 2 ; contentus . removisse, Aug. 40. 4; impedire rem destitit, Jul. 14. 2 ; dubium sit flagrasse, Jul. 52. 3 ; confodi imperavit, Aug. 27.3; metus ceperat ausurum eum, Jul. 19.1 ; Componi . . . offendebatur, Aug. 89. 3 ; permisit ... intervisere, Aug. 24.1 ; corrigi praecepit, Aug. 99. 1 ; prohibuit ... frequentare, Aug. 31. 4 ; introire . . . religio est, Aug. 6; deflectere

supersedit, Aug. 93.

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(2) The passive infinitive occurs with the active coepi : expleri coepisset, Jul. 26. 1.

c. (1) The accusative of the gerund and gerundive, by a rare usage, is found after inter:

inter res agendas, Jul. 45. 1; inter spectandum, Aug. 45. 1.

(2) The genitive of both gerund and gerundive is used after gratiam facere in a striking way:

Bononiensibus ... gratiam fecit coniurandi, Aug. 17.2 ; reddendi equi gratiam fecit eis, Aug. 38. 3.

(3) The genitive of the gerundive occurs with causâ preceding :

causâ detrectandi sacramenti, Aug. 24. 1.

(4) Striking is the use of the gerund in the genitive both with and without an object in coördinate constructions :

iocandi licentia diripiendique ... missilia, Aug. 98. 3.

§ 10. FIGURES OF SPEECH a. Inconcinnity. Suetonius takes no pains to produce concinnity by means of figures of speech and rhetorical devices. Figures of rhetoric, comparatively speaking, seldom occur and are sometimes not employed of set purpose. Inconcinnity is effected in various ways, even in the expression of correlative members :

gratuitam et sine frumento stipendioque operam, Jul. 68. 1 ; sive divinitus sive aliqua coniectura, Jul. 1.3 ; taciti et ibidem statim, Aug. 39 ; in continentem lenioribusque paulo condicionibus, Aug. 65. 3 ; ad declinandam invidiam et ut . operam daret, Jul. 4. 1 ; in memoriam vel quod

prospere gesserat, Aug. 7.1 ; imposne mentis an simulata dementia incertum, Aug. 19. 2.

b. Certain irregularities are noticeable in the position of individual words :

(1) The appositive before its noun, especially when it expresses official position or relationship:

dictatore Sulla, Jul. 1.1; collega eius Marcus Bibulus, Jul. 10.1; avunculus Caesar, Aug. 94. 9.

(2) The adjective often precedes in proper names :

Magni Alexandri, Jul. 7.1 ; Magnum Pompeium, Aug. 4. 1.

(3) The gentile name follows the cognomen:

Calvi Licini, Jul. 49. 1 ; Crispus Sallustius, Aug. 86. 3.

(4) Attributive words in unusual positions :

quattuor quibus in conspectum venit horis, Jul. 35. 2 ; plurium quam quisquam umquam dierum supplicationes, Jul. 24. 3 ; ad tam insignem despecti senatus contumeliam, Jul. 79. 1.

C. Zeugma is not infrequent:

dimissis octo legionibus Transalpinaque Gallia, Jul. 29. 2 ; et vi necopinantis et ... legibus adgredi, Aug. 10.1; Ne quod autem maleficium negotiumve ... elaberetur, Aug. 32. 2 ; alios poena, alios ignominia notavit, plures admonitione, Aug. 39.

d. Ellipsis.

Among the more unusual forms are these:

(1) Most common is the omission of the infinitives of sum, present, past and future:

occisum (sc. esse) eum heredemque se (sc. esse) comperit, Aug. 8. 2 ; Etiam cultu notabilem (sc. fuisse) ferunt, Jul. 45. 3 ; quem vel praecipuum adiutorem (sc. futurum esse) speraverat, Aug. 10. 2.

(2) Pronouns, especially forms of is, are often omitted:

ex equitibus R. (sc. eos) creavit, Aug. 40.1 ; et (sc. eis) qui .. confugerant, Jul. 5; hoc quoque ... allegaret, (sc. se) esse possessorem, Aug. 5.

(3) The infinitive in the same form is not repeated after posse, solere, coepi, etc. :

Pompeium primum rogare sententiam coepit, cum Crassum soleret, Jul. 21.

e. Pleonasm but seldom occurs, and in short phrases :

de eius ac patris sui utraque origine, Jul. 6.1; quodam modo pro parte aliqua, Aug. 46; eventus ante praesensit, Aug. 96.1; simul ac primum, Jul. 30. 3.

f. Asyndeton is employed to an excessive degree, both of single words and phrases and of entire sentences :

(1) It is more marked in brief sentences :

Aug. {. 1 (four sentences); Aug. 22 (three sentences); Aug. 44. 2 f. (four sentences).

(2) Asyndetic sentences are sometimes used to explain and illustrate, as it were, words placed as a heading at the beginning of a chapter:

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Unus . . . omnia in re publica ... administravit, Jul. 20. 2 ff., explained by the sentences following without any connective.

(3) Though the conjunction is omitted, a kind of connection is sometimes effected by a word at the beginning of a sentence, especially a word repeated from the preceding sentence: Adicit his Aquilius Niger, Aug. 11; Publica opera plurima extruxit

forum cum aede Martis Ultoris, templum . . . aedem . . . Fori extruendi causa Aedem Martis ... Templum Apollinis Tonanti Iovi aedem .

·, Aug. 29. 1-3.

(4) Adversative asyndeton is frequent, both of words and of sentences :

Reliqui

Priore ... sequenti, Aug. 10. 4 ; Sed Gallo . . . irasci. potentia . floruerunt, Aug. 66. 2 f.

(5) Asyndeton is particularly frequent in members of sentences, especially in enumerations :

Fuisse traditur excelsa statura, colore candido, teretibus membris, ore paulo pleniore, nigris vegetisque oculis, valitudine prospera, Jul. 45. 1 ; genu nixus deiecta ab umeris toga nudo pectore, Aug. 52; Bella . gessit : Mutinense, Philippense, Perusinum, Siculum, Actiacum, Aug. 9 ; Meminerunt .. Geminus in historia, Bibulus in edictis, C. Curio pater in orationibus, Jul. 9. 2.

g. Polysyndeton is rare :

et spectaculo ... interfuit et formam . . . consideravit et ex consuetudine . . . dedit, Jul. 31. 1; splendidam quoque atque etiam magnificam et generosam, Jul. 55. 1 ; plurima et formidulosissima et vana et irrita videbat, Aug. 91. 1.

h. Chiasmus often occurs in the arrangement of parts of a sentence, rarely in the case of entire sentences :

detrectante dominationem atque assertores flagitante, Jul. 80.1; Sed haec alii; ipse Augustus nihil . . scribit, Aug. 2. 3 ; fusis armamentis et gubernaculo diffracto, Aug. 17. 3 ; assurrectum ab universis in theatro et a stantibus plausum, Aug. 56. 2. Striking is the chiastic arrangement in pairs in Jul. 45. 1, quoted under f.(5), above.

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i. Hendiadys is rarely met in Suetonius :

post magnam pugnam atque victoriam, Jul. 67. 1; ex consuetudine licentiaque bellorum civilium, Aug. 32. 1 ; habitum vestitumque, Aug. 40. 5.

j. Hypallage occurs :

de cetero numero candidatorum, Jul. 41. 2; communem sepulturae honorem, Aug. 17. 4.

k. Litotes is especially frequent in expressions like non sine, non minor, etc. :

nec sine iure iurando, Jul. 30. 3 ; non sine periculo, Aug. 28. 1 ; non minore acerbitate, Jul. 73; male quietas, Aug. 21. 1; nihil non ausurum eum, Jul. 19. 1 ; nullius non facinoris, Aug. 32. 1 ; nemini non, Jul. 75. 2.

1. Praeteritio: sustained use of this figure is found in Jul. 49. 1: Omitto

Praetereo actiones Missa etiam facio edicta. Cf. also Aug. 51. 1, Ne enumerem ; Aug. 57. 1, Omitto senatus consulta.

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m. Prolepsis rarely occurs :

Nursinos . . . extorres oppido egit, Aug. 12.

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