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I De Senec. 3. U. De Or. ii. 68. - III. Tusc. Disp. i. 47.-IV. De Or. i. 61.-V. De Or. fii. 56. VI. De Fin. ii. 30. VII. a. De Senect. 7.- VIII. a. Acad. Quæ.t. v. 1, De Fin. ii. 32; b. De Or. ii. 74; c. De Amicit. 12.-IX. De Off. iii. 11.-X. De Senect. 17.-XI. a. Tusc. Disp. v. 12; b. i. 43; c. v. 32; d. v. 108; e. Acad. Quæst. i. 4; f. Tusc. Disp. v. 34.-XII. De Off. iii. 22.-XIII. Tusc. Disp. v. 7.-XIV. Tusc. Disp. v. 34.-XV. De Off. iii. 26, 27.—XVI. Tusc. Disp. v. 21. -XVII. a. Tusc. Disp. v. 42; b. i. 42;, c. v. 34. — XVIII. Tusc. Disp. ii. 25. — XIX. De Inv. ii. 4.-. -XX. Tusc. Disp. v. 23.-XXL Brut. 80, 90, 91.

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1. Ad Attic. xii. 28. - 2. xii. 5. 3. De Fin. ii. 46.4. De Fin. v. 24. 5. Orat. 34.-6. Ad Attic. iv. 13.-7. De Nat. Deor. 1. 44.-10. De Nat. Deor. ii. 66.-11. Tusc. Disp. i. 29.-12. De Orat. ii. 44.-13. De Off. i. 26.-14. De Off. i. 43.-15. De Fin. v. 16.-16. Ad Fam. v. 7.17. Tusc. Disp. iv. 26.-19. Pro Arch. 7.-20. Tusc. Disp. ii. 5.21. De Orat. i. 25. — 22. i. 15. — 23. Acad. Quæst. iv. 41.

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'XXIII. Verr. ii. 2, 1.-XXIV. De Senect. 75.-XXV. De Div. ii. 27, 28. XXVI. a. De Inv. i. 1; b. De Orat. i. 8.—XXVII. a. De Nat. Deor. ii. 2; b De Legg. i. 8; c. De Nat. Deor. i. 22; d. iii. 39; e. ii. 22; f. De Legg. ii. 7; g. De Nat. Deor. ii. 28. — XXV1I1. De Senect. 23.

Age of B.C. A.U.C. Cicero. 106 648

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MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO was born at Arpinum on the 3d of January, in the consulship of M. Servilius Caepio and C. Atillius Serranus, and was thus a few months older than Pompey, who was born on the last day of September in the same year, and six years older than Cæsar, who was born B. C. 100. He was removed by his father at an early age to Rome, where he received instruction from some of the most celebrated rhetoricians and philosophers of his time, and particularly from the poet Archias. After he had assumed the toga, he studied law under Q. Mucius Scaevola, the Augur, and subsequently under the pontifex of the same name. 89 665 17 Served under Pompeius Strabo, the father of the

88 666 18 81 673 25




Is it

78 676 28 077 677 29


Heard Philo and Molo at Rome.

Made his first appearance as an advocate, delivered his speech Pro Quinctio.

80 674 26 Defended Sextius Roscius, who had been accused of

great Pompey, in the Marsic war, and was present when Sulla captured the Samnite camp before Nola.


79 675 27 Went to Athens, and received instruction from An

tiochus of Ascalon, a philosopher of the old Academy, and from Phædrus and Zeno of the Epicurean school.

Visited Asia Minor, and heard Molo at Rhodes. Returned to Rome: married Terentia: was engaged in pleading causes.

Age of B.C. A.U.C. Cicero.

75 679 31

74 680 32

70 684 36

69 685 37

66 688 40

Quæstor in Sicily.
Returned to Rome.
Accused Verres.

Prætor. Spoke in favor of the Manilian law, by which the command of the war against Mithridates was transferred to Pompey. Defended Cluentius. Betrothed his daughter Tullia, who could not have been more than ten years old, to C. Piso Frugi.

65 689 41 Declined the government of a province in order to devote his energies to the attainment of the consulship.

63 691 43 Consul with C. Antonius. Suppressed Catiline's conspiracy. Opposed the Agrarian law, which had been proposed by Rullus. Defended C. Calpurnius Piso, who had been consul B. C. 67, and L. Murena, the consul elect.

57 697 49 56 698 50

62 692 44 Defended P. Sulla, who was implicated in the crimes of Catiline, but was screened from punishment by the aristocratical party.

59 695 47 Defended L. Flaccus, who had been prætor in the consulship of Cicero, and who was accused of extortion in the province of Asia.

58 696 48 Cicero went into exile towards the end of March. He first proceeded to Brundisium, crossed over to Dyrrhachium, and thence went to Thessalonica, but returned to Dyrrhachium towards the close of the year. Recalled from exile.

Defended Sextius, who had been instrumental in his restoration from banishment. Attacked, in a speech in the senate, Vatinius, who had been one of the chief witnesses against Sextius.

55 699 51 Attacked Piso, who had been consul at the time of his exile. Composed his work De Oratore, in three books.

54 700 52 Defended Plancius, who had received him in his exile,

and was now accused of bribery. Composed his work De Republica, in six books.

52 702 54 Defended Milo, who was accused of the murder of


B. C. A.U.C. Cicero

Clodius, and about the same time wrote his treatise
De Legibus.

51 703 55 Appointed against his consent to the government of Cilicia.

49 705 57 Returned to Rome on the 4th of January. The senate had just passed a decree that Cæsar should dismiss his army; but on the rapid approach of Cæsar towards Rome, the consuls fled from the city, accompanied by Cicero and the chief men of the aristocracy, with the view of defending the southern part of Italy. Cicero undertook to defend the coast south of Formia and the country around Capua, but, repenting of his resolution, made terms with Cæsar. He changed his mind again, and in the early part of June quitted Italy to join Pompey in Greece.

48 706 58 After the battle of Pharsalia, at which he was not pres

ent, he returned to Brundisium, where he remained till the arrival of Cæsar in Italy in September, B. C. 47.

47 707 59 Met Cæsar at Brundisium, and afterwards proceeded

to Rome.

46 708 60 Wrote his dialogue on famous orators, called Brutus. Spoke in defence of M. Marcellus and Q. Ligarius. 45 709 61 Divorced his wife Terentia: married a young ward, named Publilia: lost his daughter Tullia. He completed in this year his Academicae Quaestiones, his treatise De Finibus, and his Orator. Spoke in defence of Deiotarus, king of Galatia, who had incurred the resentment of Cæsar by his support of the Pompeian party.

44 710 62 Composed many philosophical works: the Tusculanae Disputationes, the De Natura Deorum, the De Divinatione, the De Senecute, and the De Officiis. After, the assassination of Cæsar on the 15th of March, Cicero retired from Rome for a short time, but returned in the beginning of September, and delivered his first Philippic against Antony.

43 711 63 Assassinated by command of Antony, on the 7th of


Age of B. C. A.U.C. Cæsar. 100, 654


86 668 14 84 670 16 83 671 17



CAIUS JULIUS CESAR, the dictator, son of C. Julius Cæsar and Aurelia, was born on the 12th of July, B. C. 100, in the consulship of C. Marius (VI.) and L. Valerius Flaccus, and was consequently six years younger than Pompey and Cicero. He was closely connected with the popular party by the marriage of his aunt Julia with the great Marius.

87 667 13 Elected to the dignity of flamen dialis, or priest of Jupiter, through the influence of his uncle Marius. Death of C. Marius.

His father, who had been prætor, died at Pisae. Married Cornelia, the daughter of L. Cinna, one of the chief opponents of Sulla. He had previously been married to one Cossutia, a wealthy heiress, whom he divorced in order to marry Cinna's daughter. This open declaration in favor of the popular party so provoked the anger of Sulla, that he

82 672 18 Commanded him to divorce Cornelia, which he re

fused to do. He was consequently proscribed, and deprived of his priesthood, his wife's dower, and his own fortune. Pardoned by Sulla.

81 673 19 Went to Asia, where he served his first campaign under M. Minucius Thermus, who was engaged in the siege of Mytilene. Sent by Thermus to Nicomedes III. in Bithynia to fetch his fleet.

80 674 20 Took part in the capture of Mytilene, and was rewarded with a civic crown for saving the life of a fellow-soldier.

78 676 22 Served under P. Sulpicius, in Cilicia; but in the

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