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Messana. A town on the N. E. coast of Sicily, now Messina.

Messia silva (Mesia, Macsia). An elevated range of woodland on the right bank of the Tiber west of Rome.

Metapontum. A Greek city on the east coast of Lucania on the Gulf of Tarentum.

Mutina. The modern Módena, a town in Gallia Cispadana.
Neapolis. A city in Campania, the modern Naples.

Nomentum. Originally a Latin town founded by Alba. but subsequently a Sabine town, 14 Roman miles N. E. of Rome.

Nova Classis. A town in Spain.

Numicus (Numicius). A small river in Latium flowing into the Tyrrhene sea near Ardea.

Numidae. The people of Numidia, a country of north Africa west of Carthage.

Ocriculum. A town in southern Umbria on the Tiber near its confluence with the Nar.

Olcădes. A people in Hispania Tarraconensis north of Carthago Nova.

Omissa (?). A town between Carthago Nova and the Ebro.

Onusa. A town on the east coast of Spain.

Oretani. A powerful people in the S. W. of Hispania Tarraconensis.

Ostia. A town in Latium at the mouth of the river Tiber.
Padus. The Po, the chief river of Italy, in Cisalpine Gaul.

Paeligni. A brave and warlike people of Sabine origin in central Italy, bounded S. W. by the Marsi, N. W. by the Marrucini, S. by Samnium, and E. by the Frentani.

Paestum or Posidonia. A city of Lucania.

Pallanteum (Pallantium). A town in the southern part of Arcadia in the Peloponnesus.

Paphlagonia. A country in the northern part of Asia Minor, south

of the Euxine.

Pentri. One of the most important tribes in Samnium. Their chief town was Bovianum.

Petra. A town in Pieria in south-eastern Macedonia.

Picēnum. A country in central Italy along the Adriatic. Adjective, Picens, entis.

Pisae. A town in northern Etruria on the Arnus about six miles from the sea. Now Pisa. Adjective, Pisānus.

Placentia. A Roman colony in Cisalpine Gaul, on the right bank of the Po, not far from the mouth of the Trebia. Now Piacenza.

Poeninus (Penninus) mons.

The modern Great St. Bernard.

Politorium. A town in Latium south of Rome.

Pometia. See Suessa. Adjective, Pomptinus.

Praeneste. A town in Latium about 20 miles S. E. of Rome. Now Palestrina.

Praetutiānus ager. The territory of the Praetutii, on the south of Picenum.

Prisci Latini. The ancient Latins, as distinguished from the Latin communities beyond the bounds of Latium.

Pydna. A town in Pieria in south-eastern Macedonia, near the Thermaic gulf.

Rhodǎnus. The Rhone, a river in Gallia.

Ruscino. A town in the S. E. part of Gallia Narbonensis at the foot of the Pyrenees.

Rutuli. An ancient Umbro-Sabellian people on the coast of Latium, a little south of the Tiber. Their capital was Ardea.

Sabini. One of the most ancient and powerful of the peoples of central Italy, over which their tribes were widely spread. The Sabini proper inhabited the country between the Nar, the Anio, and the Tiber, between Latium, Etruria, Umbria, and Picenum.

Saguntum and Saguntus. A town of the Edetani in Hispania Tarraconensis, about three miles from the coast.

Salyes. A powerful tribe inhabiting the south coast of Gaul from the Rhone to the Maritime Alps.

Samnium. A mountainous country east of Latium and Campania, inhabited by the Frentani, the Pentri, the Caudini, and the Hirpini. Its inhabitants, Samnites, are of the same stock as the Sabines.

Samothrace. A small island in the north of the Ægean sea opposite the mouth of the Hebrus in Thrace.

Sardi. The people of the island of Sardinia.

Sedūni. An Alpine people in Gallia Belgica, east of the lake of Geneva, in the valley of the Rhone.

Senones. A powerful people in Gallia Lugdunensis, a portion of whom crossed the Alps about 400 B. C., and settled on the coast of the Adriatic in Umbria.

Sidicini. An Ausonian people in the N. W. of Campania and on the borders of Samnium. Chief town, Teanum.

Signia. A town in Latium south-east of Rome.

Sinuessa. A town in Latium on the confines of Campania. Near it were celebrated warm baths, Aquae Sinuessānae.

Spolētium or Spolētum. A town in Umbria on the Via Flaminia, now Spoleto.

Stellas campus. A fertile plain in Campania, south of the ager Urbanus and Falernus, between the Via Appia and the Vulturnus. Suessa Pometia.


A town of the Volsci in Latium.

A town in Sardinia founded by the Carthaginians. Surrentum. A town of Campania on the promontory of Minerva opposite the island of Capreae. Now Sorrento. Adjective, Surren


Syracusae. A city on the south part of the east coast of Sicily. Tagus. One of the chief rivers of Spain, rising in the land of the Celtiberians, and flowing westerly into the Atlantic.

Tannetum. A town of the Boii in Gallia Cispadana between Mutina and Parma.

Tarentum. An important city of southern Italy, on the west coast of the peninsula of Calabria, on a harbor of the Gulf of Tarentum. Now Taranto.

Tarquinii. A city of Etruria on the river Marta, N. W. of Rome. Tarracina. A town of Latium, on the coast, 58 miles S. E. of Rome. Now Terracina.

Tarrăco. A town on the east coast of Spain, between Ebro and the Pyrenees. Now Tarragona.

Taurini. A "semi-Gallic" tribe in the western part of Liguria. Their chief town, Augusta Taurinorum, is now Turin.

Taurus. A chain of mountains in the south of Asia Minor and Armenia.

Teānum Sidicinum. A town of Campania, on the north slope of Mt. Massicus, commanding the road from Capua to Rome.



A town in Samnium on the road from Allifae to Bene

Tellenae. A town in Latium south or south-east of Rome. Thurii. A Greek city in Lucania, near the Gulf of Tarentum. Tibur. A town of Latium 16 miles N. E. of Rome. Now Tivoli. Ticinus. An important river of Gallia Cisalpina, which, after flowing through Lacus Verbanus (Lago Maggiore), falls into the Po, near the town of Ticīnum (now Pavia). The modern name of the river is Tessino.

Trasumennus lacus (Trasumēnus, Trasimēnus). A lake in the eastern part of the central portion of Etruria, between Clusium and Perusia, now Lago di Perugia.

Trebia. A small river in Gallia Cisalpina, south of the Po, into which it falls near Placentia.

Tricastini. A people in Gallia Narbonensis between the Cavares and the Vocontii, south of the Isère and north of the Drome.

Tricorii. A people in Gallia Narbonensis east of the Tricastini. Turdetäni. The most numerous people in Hispania Baetica, in the south of Spain, on both banks of the Baetis. They were regarded as the most civilized people in Spain. Livy speaks of a people of the same name as living near Saguntum.

Tusculum. A town of Latium on a lofty hill connected with the Alban mount, about ten miles S. E. of Rome. Adjective, Tusculānus.

Umbria. A district of Italy, S. of Gallia Cisalpina, W. of the Adriatic, N. of Picenum and the country of the Sabines, and E. of Etruria. Its inhabitants were connected with the Sabines and Samnites.

Uzentini. The people of Uzentum (now Ugento), a town on the east side of the gulf of Tarentum.

Vaccaei. A people in Hispania Tarraconensis, N. of the Carpetani. Veii. An old city of Etruria, about twelve miles northwesterly of Rome. Inhabitants, Veientes.

Veněti. The people of Venetia, in the N. E. of Italy.

Venusia. A town in Apulia, S. of the river Aufidus, and near Mt. Vultur. Adjective, Venusinus.

Verågri. A people of Gallia Belgica, on the Pennine Alps, near the confluence of the Dranse and the Rhone.

Vestini. A Sabellian people in the eastern part of central Italy, south of Picenum.

Viboniensis ager. The country around Vibo, a town on the S. W. coast of Bruttium.

Victumviae. A town in Cisalpine Gaul, near Placentia.

Viminālis (collis). One of the seven hills of Rome, between the Quirinal and the Esquiline.

Vocontii. A people in Gallia Narbonensis, between (and southward from) the Tricastini and Tricorii.

Volcae. A Celtic people in Gallia Narbonensis, in two tribes, extending from the Pyrenees along the coast as far as the Rhone.

Volciani. A tribe in Spain, near the Bargusii.

Volsci. A people in southern Latium, both sides of the Liris. Vulcani insula. The most southerly of the Lipari islands. Vulturnus (Volturnus). The chief river in Campania, rising in the Apennines and falling into the Tyrrhene sea. Now Volturno.

Zacynthus. An island in the Ionian sea, west of Elis. Now Zante.








HE result of our whole examination is a very meagre outline, but one in every way probable, of the earliest condition of Rome.

We see a number of 'gentes' or clans living apparently on local districts or 'pagi' side by side. They bear for the most part the names afterwards conspicuous in Roman history as the names of the great patrician houses.

They are divided into three great tribes. They regard themselves as connected both with the Latins and with the Sabines.


Where several sacred places are near together the Ara Maxima of Hercules, the sacred place of Faunus Lupercus on the Palatine, the temple of Quirinus on the Quirinal - a town springs up. To this the clans resort for festivals, markets, and for common deliberation.

The clans are an exclusive body, and are in possession of various priesthoods and religious privileges. Though we are told of a great Sabine clan the Claudian being admitted among them, they do not as a rule admit strangers into their body.

They have a king, chosen from their own body, who rules for life.

He summons round him a council of chiefs or elders, called senatus. This body, whatever deference may be paid to it, has no function beyond that of advising.

He commands the army, presides in the senate, and performs certain sacrifices.

He has the power of appointing two law-officers called 'quaestors.' There is a general assembly of the clans called 'comitia curiata.

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