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Co-ordinate and Subordinate Sentences,
1. The Personal Pronouns,
2. The Possessive Pronouns,
3. The Conjunctive Pronouns Is and Qui,
4. The Interrogative Quis,
5. The Indefinite Quis,
6. The Demonstrative Pronouns,
Sequence of Tenses,
Comparison of Adjectives,
Comparison of Adverbs, .
Adverbial Expressions of Time,
Temporal Conjunctions, .
Price and Value, .
The Roman Calendar,
Conjugation of Capio,
The Passive Voice,
Passive Voice of First Conjugation,
First Conjugation of Deponents,
Second Conjugation of Deponents,
Third Conjugation of Deponents,
Fourth Conjugation of Deponents,
Conjugation of Patior,
List of Deponents in common use,
Conjugation of Volo, Nolo, and Malo,
Conjugation of Fero,
Conjugation of Feror,
Compounds of Fero,
Uses of Possum and other irregular Verbs,
Conjugation of Eo,
Compounds of Eo,
Uses of Eo and its compounds,
Conjugation of Fio,
Conjugation of Edo,
Examples of Verbs used impersonally,
Defective Verbs, .
Table of Verbs,
Inchoative Verbs, .
PART VI.-DEPENDENT SENTENCES.
1. Final Conjunctions,
2. Consecutive Conjunctions,
3. Causal Conjunctions,
4. Temporal Conjunctions,
5. Concessive Conjunctions,
6. Comparative Conjunctions,
7. Conditional Conjunctions,
The Relative Pronoun Qui,
Compounds of Uter and Alter,
Derivatives of Noster and Cuius,
Correlation of Clauses,
The Historic Infinitive,
Arrangement of Words in Sentences,
1. The Latin Alphabet in the year 100 B.C. consisted of twenty-one letters; these were a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, l, m, n,
, 0, P, q, r, s, t, u (v), x. Words from the Greek brought in y
There was no j and no w.
VOWEL SOUNDS. 2. The Latin vowels were a, e, i, o, u.
The mark placed over a vowel denotes that the vowel is long.
The mark - placed over a vowel denotes that the vowel is short.
The vowels were perhaps sounded thus :-
a long, like the a in father : as māter, mother.
a short, like the a in arise : as păter, father.
e long, like the a in fame : as fēmina, woman.
e short, like the e in egg: as ēgo, I.
i long, like the i in marine: as finis, end.
i short, like the i in pity : as fides, faith.
o long, like the o in rode : as dõnum, gift.
o short, like the o in modest : as modus, manner.
u long, like the oo in rood : as lūmen, light.
u short, like the u in rub: as súbitus, sudden.
DIPHTHONGS. 3. When two vowels come together in a word, and we attempt to pronounce the second before we have completed the sound required to pronounce the first, the resulting sound is called a diphthong
Thus in pronouncing the word laity we sound the a and i separately and distinctly, but in pronouncing the word fair we attempt to sound the i before the sound of the a is completed, and the result is a diphthong. The most common diphthongs in Latin words are
ae, pronounced like ai in fair : as aestas, summer.'
au, pronounced like ou in house : as fraus, deceit.
oe, pronounced like oi in coin: as poena, penalty.
CONSONANT SOUNDS. 4. If we put the vowel a before each of the consonants in order, thus ab, ac, ad, and pronounce the resulting syllables, we find
(1.) That in some cases the consonant checks the sound produced.
Such are ab, ac, ad, ag, ak, ap, aq, at.
Hence b, c, d, g, k, p, q, t are called Checks or Mutes. The Mutes are divided into three classes, named after the organs of speech used in sounding them, thus :
Gutturals, or throat-letters, c, g, k, 9.
Dentals, or teeth-letters, d, t.
Labials, or lip-letters, b, p. Again, of consonants uttered by the same organ, some require a greater effort to pronounce them, and they produce a harsher sound than others; hence
c is called a hard guttural, and g a soft guttural,
t is called a hard dental, and d a soft dental,
p is called a hard labial, and b a soft labial. k, always followed by a, occurs in a few words, as kalendae. q is always followed by u, as quartus.