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masculine, in -er, masculine, and -um, neuter, as Dominus, lord; Puer, boy; Magister, master; and signum, sign.

SINGULAR.
Nom. Dominus. Puer.

Măgister. signum.
Gen. Dominī.

Puěrī. Magistri. signī.
Dat. Domino. Puero. Magistro. signo.
Acc. Dominum. Puerum. Magistrum. signum.
Voc. Domině. Puer.

Magister. signum.
Abl. Domino.

Puero. Magistro. signo.

PLURAL.
Nom. Domini. Pueri. Magistri. signă.
Gen. Dominorum. Puerārum. Magistrōrum. signOrum.
Dat. Dominīs. Puerīs. Magistrīs. signis.
Acc. Dominos. Puerās. Magistros. signă.
Voc. Domini.

Pueri. Magistri. signă.
Abl. Dominis. Pueris. Magistris. signis.
NOTE 1.—The words Puer and Magister are abbreviated forms of
Puerus and Magisterus.

NOTE 2.— In the declension of Magister a letter is dropped, Magistri for Magisteri, and so on.

MASCULINE NOUNS OF THE O DECLENSION.

1. Declined like DOMINUS.

Agnus, lamb.
Ănimus, spirit.
Annus, year.
Ăsinus, ass.
Campus, plain.
Căpillus, hair.
Cervus, stag.
Chorus, band.
Cibus, food.
Corvus, crow.
Digitus, finger.
Dolus, trick.
Équès, horse.
Flŭvius, river.
Focus, hearth.

Fūmus, smoke.
Gallus, cock.
Glădius, sword.
Haedus, kid.
Hortus, garden.
Lectus, couch.
Légātus, envoy, lieutenant.
Lūcus, grove.
Lūdus, sport.
Lúpus, wolf.
Mòdus, manner.
Morbus, disease.
Mundus, universe.
Mūrus, wall.
Muscus, moss.

Nāsus, nose.
Nātus, son.
Nīdus, nest.
Nodus, knot.
Nůměrus, number.
Nummus, coin.
Ocủlus, eye.
Pontus, sea.
Popůlus, people.
Porcus, hog.
Pullus, young animal.
Rāmus, bough.
Rīvus, stream.
Rogus, funeral pile.
Servus, slave.

Somnus, sleep. Thălămus, chamber. Ventus, wind.
Succus, juice.
Torus, bed.

Vicus, village.
Sulcus, furrow. Uměrus, shoulder. Vịtŭlus, calf.
Taurus, bull.

Ursus, bear. Many names of Roman men belong to this declension, as Marcus, Clodius, Pompeius ; also some rivers, as Rhēnus, the Rhine, and Rhodănus, the Rhone ; and winds, as Eurus, Eastwind, and Nótus, South-wind. Some towns are in the plural only, as Gabii, Tarquinii, Falerii, Delphi, Philippi.

The following are Feminine Nouns of this declension :

Names of Trees.
alnus, alder.
fāgus, beech.

plătănus, plane.
buxus, box.
fraxinus, ash.

põmus, apple. cédrus, cedar. mõrus, mulberry. popůlus, poplar. cěrăsus, cherry. ornus, mountain-ash.

taxus, yew., corŭlus, hazel. pirus, pear.

ulmus, elm. Names of some countries and islands in -us are feminine, as Ægyptus, Cyprus.

hằmus, ground, is feminine, and only found in the singular.

pělăgus, the open sea, and vīrus, poison, are neuter, and have no plural.

Vulgus, common people, is masculine or neuter, and has no plural.

Contracted Forms. The genitive singular of nouns in -ius and -ium is often contracted : thusNom. Filius, son ;

Gen. Filii or Fili. Nom. ingěnium, disposition; Gen. ingenii or ingeni. The vocative singular of names in -ius is contracted into -i, as Fili, Mercări, Pompei.

The genitive plural is contracted in some words, as nummum for nummorum, especially in words denoting weights and

measures.

Declension of Deus, God.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
Nom. Deus.

Nom. Dei, Dii or Di.
Gen. Dei.

Gen. Deorum or Deum.
Dat. Deo.

Dat. Deis, Diis or Dis.
Acc. Deum.

Acc. Deos.
Voc. Deus.

Voc. Dei, Dii or Di.
Abl. Deo.

Abl. Deis, Diis or Dis.

2. Like PUER.
Gěner, son-in-law.
Socer, father-in-law.
Līber, a name of Bacchus (only in the singular).
Liberi, children of free Romans (only in the plural).

3. Like MAGISTER.
Ăger, field,
Cancer, crab,

Fåber, smith,
Aper, boar,

Căper, he-goat, Līber, book,
Arbiter, umpire, Colůber, adder, Mĩnister, assistant,
Auster, south-wind, Culter, knife,

Oleaster, wild-olive, and many Proper Names, as Alexander, Teucer, and Ister, the Danube.

Declension of Vir, man.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
Nom. Vir.

Nom. Viri.
Gen. Viri.

Gen. Virorum or Virum.
Dat. Viro.

Dat. Viris.
Acc. Virum.

Acc. Viros.
Voc. Vir.

Voc. Viri.
Abl. Viro.

Abl. Viris.

antrum, cave.
ărātrum, plough.
argentum, silver.
arvum, corn-land.
astrum, constellation.
bellum, war.

4. Like SIGNUM.
collum, neck.

folium, leaf. damnum, loss. frēnum, rein or bit. dönum, gift.

imperium, command. exitium, destruction. iŭgum, yoke. fātum, fate.

lignum, log. ferrum, iron. līlium, lily.

lucrum, gain.
mālum, apple.
membrum, limb.
monstrum, prodigy.
něgotium, business.
odium, hatred.
officium, duty.
oppidum, town.
otium, ease.
ovum, egg
pācŭlum, cup.
põmum, apple.

praemium, reward. pretium, price. proelium, combat. prūnum, plum. regnum, kingdom. rostrum, beak. saxum, stone. sceptrum, sceptre. scūtum, shield. sépulcrum, tomb. somnium, dream.

tectum, roof. tēlum, missile. templum, temple. tergum, back. unguentum, perfume. věnēnum, poison. verbum, word. vinculum, chain. vīnum, wine. vitium, fault. võtum, vow.

In the Singular only we find, aurum, gold, oleum, oil, sölum, soil.

In the Plural only, arma, arms, exta, entrails.

A few words in -us have their plurals in a; and a few in -um have plurals in i :

Iðcus, jest, has in the Plural Ioci or ioca.
Locus, place,

Loci or loca.
Tartărus, hell,

Tartăra.
caelum, heaven,

Caeli. frēnum, rein,

Freni or frena. rastrum, hoe,

Rastri or rastra.

The following have special meanings in the Plural :

SINGULAR.
auxilium, help.
castrum, a fort.
impedimentum, a hindrance.

PLURAL.
auxilia, auxiliary troops.
castra, a camp.
impedimenta, baggage.

ON THE CASES AS PARTS of the SIMPLE SENTENCE.

NOMINATIVE.

a

32. With a Verb and a Noun we can form a complete sentence —the noun standing as the Subject in the nominative case, and the verb agreeing with the subject in Number and Person.

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The Latin equivalents of the nominative cases of the Personal
Pronouns I, thou, we, ye, are Ego, Tu, Nos, Vos.
Thus the following are complete sentences =
Ego doceo.
Aquila volat.

Portae patent.
Tu discis.
Ranae natant.

Arma sonant.
Nos stamus.

Magister docebit. Puella canebat
Vos sedetis.
Puer discet.

Pueri dormiebant. NOTE.—The first and second persons of the tenses of many verbs standing by themselves form intelligible sentences, as Doceo and Discis, the pronouns being added only when emphasis is required.

ACCUSATIVE.

33. Action implies (1.) an agent, (2.) a patient or effect.

The word expressing the patient or effect of an action is called the Object of the verb expressing the action. In Latin, the object of a verb of action is usually put in the accusative

a

case.

Transitive verbs in Latin are those which are followed by an accusative of the object.

Agricola arat terram. Magister docet puerum.
Nauta secat undas.

Cervus petit rivum.
Puella aperit portam.

Somnus lenit curas. Next observe that the order of the words in each of the sentences just given may be changed without altering their meaning. This advantage we do not possess in English, because we have no termination for the Objective case of a noun by which we can distinguish it from the Nominative, and therefore we are generally bound to keep the order—Subject, Verb, Object.

In some Pronouns we have a distinct form for the Objective case; as me, us, him, her. Hence we can write, Him God loved, instead of God loved him, if we wish to give emphasis to the word him, by putting it in an unusual position.

The Latin equivalents of the Objective cases of our Pronouns me, thee, us, you, are Me, Te, Nos, Vos.

B

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