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The order of words in a Latin sentence depends partly on emphasis, partly on sound; but in a simple sentence the natural order is Subject, Object, Verb. Thus we writeEgo te amo ; tu me amas. Magister puerum docet.

Cervus rivum petit. NOTE.—The Subject gains emphasis by being put at the end of the sentence, the Object by being put at the beginning.

DATIVE.

a

34. The simplest use of the Dative is to denote the person for whom an action is performed. Thus we may have a sentence consisting of a verb and three nouns, which denote respectively

The subject performing the action-Nominative.
The object on which the action is performed—Accusative.

The person for whom the action is performed—Dative.
The Dative cases of the Pronouns of the First and Second
Persons in Latin are—Mihỉ, for me; Tibi, for thee; Nobis,
for us ; Vobis, for you.

The usual position of the dative in a simple sentence is next to the subject, so as to bring into sharper contrast the person performing the action and the person affected by it. Thus we write

Mihi puella coronam portat. Pueris magister praemia dabit. Servus* domino poculum tradit. Poeta vobis fabulam narrabit.

* N.B.—The possessive pronouns my, thy, his, etc., are not expressed in Latin when they are unemphatic.

GENITIVE.

35. A Noun in the Genitive usually qualifies another Noun, the two together expressing a single notion. This relation is in English generally expressed

(1.) By the preposition of, as“ The anger of the queen;"

(2.) By the possessive case, as “The queen's anger.” In Latin, ira reginae expresses the same notion.

The position of the genitive, before or after the noun on which it depends, seems to have been chiefly determined by sound, but the natural position is after the noun that it qualifies.

Servus iram domini timet. Umbrae silvarum puellas terrent.
Belli pericula vitamus.

Curas animi lenit somnus.

ABLATIVE.

36. The simplest use of the Ablative is to express

the instrument with which an action is performed, or the means by which an effect is produced. In this usage it may be rendered in English by the prepositions with and by. Its position is usually in the middle of the sentence.

Regina gemmis comam decorat. Antra musco virebant.
Agricola campos aratro secat. Gallina pullos alis fovebit.

Põpulus umbram foliis praebet.

VOCATIVE. 37. The Vocative is used when a person or thing is spoken to by name. The form of the vocative is the same as that of the nominative in all Latin nouns, except in the singular of the O declension.

Te, regina, laudamus. Vos, ancillae, domina vocat.
Aura, veni.

Te, Bacche, canam.

PREPOSITIONS.

38. The use of Prepositions is chiefly to indicate with accuracy local relations, such, for example, as those in which the speaker refers to motion from, to, in, or about a certain place.

In Latin, Prepositions are used with the Accusative and
Ablative cases, and of those in common use we may here notice
the following -
WITH AN ACCUSATIVE.

WITH AN ABLATIVE.
Ad, of motion to.

A or ab, of motion from.
In, of motion into.

E or ex, of motion out of.
Per, of motion through. In, of rest or motion in.

a

Nuntios ad Pompeium mittemus. Fumus ab aris surgit.
Via in Britanniam patet.

E silvis cervos agemus.
Per lucum rivus fluit.

In oppido manebo. Regina in thalamo dormiebat. Cenam in hortis servi parabant.

NOTE.— The Prepositions a and e are never used before vowels, but ab (or abs) and ex are frequently used before consonants.

39. In answer to the question Whither ? names of towns and small islands are put in the accusative without a preposition.

Nuntios Romam mittam.
Legatos Sardiniam ad Pompeium mittemus.

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THE LOCATIVE CASE. 40. To express "at a place,” the Latin writers use a form of the noun called the locative case, which in the A and O Declensions is the same as the Genitive for singular nouns, and as the Ablative for plural nouns, thus : A DECLENSION.

O DECLENSION.
Romae = at Rome.

Corinthi= at Corinth.
Athenis = at Athens.

Gabiis = at Gabii.
Thus we find

Romae manet Clodius.
Ludos Ephesi spectabam.

Pompeium Athenis videbo.
Similarly are used

hůmi, on the ground, Cervus humi jacet,
dómi, at home,

Domi te manebo, and, as contrasted with domi, the words militiae, in the field, and belli, at war.

ADJECTIVES WITH STEMS IN A AND O. 41. Adjectives are words implying attributes. When joined to nouns they usually express some quality belonging to the persons, places, or things of which the nouns are the names, as, A good man, A handsome city, A lofty tree.

Like nouns in Latin, they have inflexions to express differences of gender, number, and case.

42. Adjectives in which all three genders are distinguished are called adjectives of three terminations. In the most important class, of which Dūrus, hard, is a type,

the masculine is declined like Dominus,
the feminine is declined like porta,
the neuter is declined like signum.

Declension of the adjective Dīrus, hard.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
MAS. FEM. NEUT.

MAS.
FEM.

NEUT.
Nom. dūrus dūra dūrum Nom. dūri dūrae dūra
Gen. dūri dūrae dūri Gen. dūrorum dūrarum dūrorum
Dat. dūro dūrae dūro Dat. dūris dūris dūris
Acc. dūrum dūram dūrum Acc. dūros dūras dūra
Voc. dūre dūra dūrum Voc. dūri dūrae dūra
Abl. dūro dūrā dūro Abl. dūris dūris dūris

parvus, small.

Adjectives in common use declined like Durus. albus, white.

fulvus, tawny. pallidus, pale. altus, lofty.

gělidus, cool. amicus, friendly.

lātus, broad.

pūrus, clear. arduus, steep.

longus, long.

răpidus, swift. bonus, good.

magnus, great.

rectus, straight. castus, chaste.

mälus, bad.

rotundus, round. clārus, bright.

mědius, middle. siccus, dry. curvus, bent, winding.

multus, many. stultus, foolish. densus, thick.

novus, new.

tăcitus, silent. flāvus, yellow.

nūdus, naked.

ūdus, moist.

Declension of the adjective TĚNER, tender. 43. The masculine is declined like Puer; the feminine like porta; the neuter like signum.

SINGULAR.
MAS.
FEM.

NEUT. Nom. těner tenera

tenerum Gen. teneri

tenerae

teneri Dat. tenero

tenerae

tenero Acc. tenerum

teneram

tenerum Voc. tener tenera

tenerum Abl. tenero tenerā

tenero

PLURAL.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Voc.
Abl.

MAS. teneri tenerorum teneris teneros teneri teneris

FEM. tenerae tenerarum teneris teneras tenerae teneris

NEUT. tenera tenerorum teneris tenera tenera teneris

Other adjectives of this class in common use are— asper, rough,

myser, wretched, lăcer, torn,

prosper, lucky, liber, free, and some compounds from the verbs féro, I bring, and gěro, I bear, as, frūgifer, fruitful, and corniger, horned.

Sătur, satūra, satărum, full or glutted, is similarly declined.

Declension of the adjective ATER, black. 44. The masculine is declined like Magister; the feminine like porta ; the neuter like signum.

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Dexter, on the right, lucky, is declined sometimes like Tener and sometimes like Ater.

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