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45. The forms of the Copula, is, are, was, etc., are supplied in Latin by parts of the verb Esse, to be. The Imperfect tenses of the Indicative Mood arePRESENT.

SING. 1. sum, I am.

SING. 1. ēram, I was.
2. ěs, thou art.

2. erās, thou wast. 3. est, he (she, it) is.

3. erät, he was. PLUR. 1. sůmůs, we are.

PLUR. 1. erāmůs, we were. 2. estis, ye are.

2. erātis, ye were. 3. sunt, they are.

3. erant, they were.

SING. 1. ěro, I shall be.

2. eris, thou wilt be.

3. erst, he will be.
PLUR. 1. erimŭs, we shall be.

2. erýtis, ye will be.
3. erunt, they will be.



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46. The Adjective is used to express1st, a Predicate, as, The town is ancient, Oppidum est anti

quum. 2d, an Attribute, as, We see an ancient town, Oppidum

antiquum videmus. In Latin the attributive adjective always, the predicative adjective generally, agrees with the noun to which it refers, in gender, number, and case. Via est ardua.

Saxa sunt dura.
Alba lilia cadunt.

Põpulus alta viret.
Vir bonus Deum timet. Deus virum bonum amat.

The natural position of the attributive adjective is after the noun, but exceptions are frequent.

The distinctions of gender being marked by terminations, we often find in Latin adjectives used as nouns; thus

Amicus, a friend ; amici, friends.
Boni, good men ; bona, goods ; bonum, a blessing.

Multi, many men ; multa, many things.
Amicus amicum monet.

Boni bonos amant.
Multi divitias spernunt.

Pueri multa discunt. Hence it is that the predicative adjective sometimes differs in gender and number from the noun to which it refers, as

Liberi sunt bonum, children are a blessing.


47. Nouns of this declension have various endings in the nominative; their genitive always ends in -īs. We may arrange them into two divisionsA. Nouns which have the same number of syllables in the

genitive as in the nominative. B. Nouns which have a syllable more in the genitive than

in the nominative.

DIVISION A (CHIEFLY I-NOUNS). 48. Of nouns which do not increase in the genitive there are four varieties :1. Some of the nouns ending in es in the nominative, as

nubes, cloud. 2. Most of the nouns ending in is in the nominative, as

classis, fleet. 3. All neuter nouns ending in e in the nominative, as

mare, sea. 4. A few of the nouns ending in er in the nominative, as

Pater, father.

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Similarly are declined the following nouns, all feminineaedes, temple.

rūpes, cliff.
caedes, slaughter.

saepes, hedge, orchard.
clādes, defeat, disaster. sēdes, seat.
fēles, cat.

strāges, destruction.
indoles, disposition.

súboles, stock. mõles, mass.

valles, vale. prôles, offspring.

vulpes, fox. fămes, hunger, makes famē in the ablative.

Vātes, seer, and Vepres, bramble, are of common gender; the former makes the genitive plural Vatum.

Verres, boar-pig, is masculine.

A large number of male names belong to this class, as Socrates, Demosthenes.

Senex, Sěnis, old person, is an irregular noun of this class, making the genitive plural Senum.


2. Nominative ending in is.


N. & V. classis.

N. & V. classēs.
Gen. classís.

Gen. classIūm.
Dat. classī.

Dat. classibús.
Acc. classem.


classēs. Abl. classě.

Abl. classibús.
Nouns of this class are about equally divided in respect of
gender; the following are Masculine-
Collis, hill.

Ensis, sword.
Crīnis, hair.

Fascis, bundle.

Follis, bellows.

Postis, door-post.
Fustis, club.

Piscis, fish.
Ignis, fire.

Sodālis, intimate friend.
Mensis, month.

Unguis, nail, claw.
Orbis, circle.

Vectis, crow-bar.
Pānis, loaf.

Vermis, worm.
The following are Feminine-
åpis, bee.

puppis, stern, avis, bird.

rătis, raft. auris, ear.

restis, rope. clāvis, key.

sitis, thirst. cắtis, skin.

sécūris, axe. fěbris, fever.

trịrēmis, trireme. fóris, door.

turris, tower. messis, harvest.

vallis, vale. nāvis, ship.

vestis, garment. övis, sheep.

vītis, vine. pellis, hide.

volůcris, bird.
pestis, plague.
The following are Common-
Amnis, river.

Iůvěnis, young person.
Anguis, snake.

Hostis, enemy.
Cănis, dog.

Sentis, thorn.
Cīvis, citizen.

Testis, witness.
Fīnis, end.

Tigris, tiger.
Fūnis, rope.

Torquis, collar. Most of the nouns in these lists are declined like classis, but some have the accusative in im as well as em : such are clavis, febris, messis, navis, restis, securis ; puppis and turris have usually im ; sītis, thirst, has always im. Again, some have in the ablative į as well as e: such are febris, navis, puppis, securis, turris, Amnis, Ignis; sitis has always siti.

The genitive plural ends as a rule in ium in noups of this class : exceptions are Canis, Iuvenis, and volucris, which make Canum, Tuvenum, and volucrum. Mensis and apis have the gen. pl. in ium or um.

N.B.—The accusative plural of all I-nouns is frequently found in is instead of es, as classīs for classes.



3. Nominative ending in e.

N. Ac. V. márě.

N. Ac. V. marič.
Gen. maris.

Gen. marIum.
Dat. Abl. marī.

Dat. Abl. maribus.
Similarly are declined-
cúbile, bed.

pěnětrāle, inner-chamber. insigne, ensign.

praesēpe, stall. monile, necklace.

rēte, net. övīle, sheep-fold.

dědile, seat. The forms marě and retě are found in the ablative.

The following are found in the plural only :-altāria, altars ; ilia, flank; moenia, city-walls.


4. Nominative ending in er.

N. V. Påter.

N.V. Patres.
Gen. Pătris.

Gen. Patrum.
Dat. Patri.

Dat. Patribus.
Acc. Patrem.

Acc. Patres.
Abl. Patre.

Abl. Patribus.
Similarly are declined-

Accìpiter, hawk; Frāter, brother; māter, mother :

Imber, shower ; Linter, wherry; Venter, belly ; except that the three last have ium in the genitive plural : also, names of months in er, as September, which is really an adjective, with Mensis understood; the ablative ends in i. NOTE.-Linter and Accipiter are sometimes feminine.


Declension of the adjective ACER, keen.



MAS. FEM NEUT. N. V. ācer acris acre

N. Ac. V. acres acria Gen.


acrium Dal.


Dat. Abl. acribus Acc. acrem

acre Abl.




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