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societās, societātis, fellowship. Súperstěs, superstitis, survivor. tempestas, tempestātis, weather, Trāměs, Tramitis, path.

storm. větustās, vetustātis, antiquity. Ădămās, Adamantis, adamant. (I) voluptās, voluptātis, pleasure. Éléphās, Elephantis, elephant,

Gigās, Gigantis, giant.
àbiēs, abiětis, fir.

(I) Infans, infantis, infant.
Ăriēs, Ariétis, ram.
Păriēs, Pariētis, house-wall.

(I) Adulescens, adulescentis, young séges, segětis, crop.

person. těgěs, tegětis, mat.

Bydens, Bidentis, hoe. quies, quiētis, rest.

bydens, bidentis, sheep. rèquies, requiētis, repose.

(I) Cliens, Clientis, client. Tăpes, Tapētis, tapestry.

Occỉdens, Occidentis, west.

Oriens, Orientis, east.
Caespès, Caespitis, turf. (I) Părens, parentis, parent.
Coměs, comîtis, companion. Serpens, serpentis, serpent.
Équěs, Equịtis, horseman. Něpās, Nepotis, grandson.
Gurgěs, Gurgỉtis, whirlpool. Săcerdos, sacerdotis, priest.
Hospěs, hospytis, stranger.
Līměs, Limitis, boundary.

itventės, iuventutis, youth. Mīlēs, milytis, soldier.

sålūs, salūtis, safety, health, Pěděs, Pedîtis, foot-soldier. sěnectūs, senectūtis, old age. Poplēs, Poplytis, back of knee. servịtūs, servitūtis, slavery.

Satellēs, satellītis, attendant. (I) virtūs, virtūtis, virtue. In poetry we frequently find Infantum, and Parentum.

V stems. Bos, bovis, ox or cow, has boum in gen. pl., and bovibus, būbus, or būbus

in dat. pl. nix, nivis, snow. Iuppiter, Iðvis, Iovi, Iovem, Iove, the name of the Chief of the Gods.

Names of other Heathen Deities.
Iūno, Iunānis.

Åpollo, Apollinis.
Věnús, Věneris,

Mars, Martis.
Cěres, Cěrěris.

Plūto, Plutonis.
Pallàs, Pallădis.

Hercůles, Herculis. NOTE.- In the formation of the nominative from the nounstem observe

1. That it is chiefly formed by adding s to the stem, and that the final letter of the stem affects the formation ; thus

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Gutturals + s produce ac; thus

Duc + s gives Dux; leg + s gives lex.
Dentals + s produce loss of the dental --

Ped + s gives Pes; dot + s gives dos.
Labials + 8 keep both letters, with omission or change of

the final vowel urb(i) + s gives urbs; Princip +s gives Princeps. 2. N +s rejects the s, except in Sanguis from Sanguin + s, and often rejects both n and s; thus from

stem Flamin- we have Flamen, and from

stem Leon- we have Leo. 3. L + s rejects the s, as Consul from stem Consul-.

4. R + s rejects the s, as Dolor from stem Dolor-, or changes r into s, as Flos from stem Flor-.

Hence we find the forms Honos and arbös sometimes instead of Honor and arbor.

n

57. Some words in the foregoing list only occur in the singular, as Sanguis, tellus ; súpellex, supellectilis, household goods, only occurs in the singular, vīs, force, is thus declined :SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
Nom. vis.

Nom. vires.
Gen. vis.

Gen. virium.
Dat. vi.

Dat. viribus.
Acc. vim,

Acc. vires.
Voc. vis.

Voc. vires.
Abl. vi.

Abl. viribus.

The genitive and dative singular are not used by Cicero.

Aethēr, Aethěris, ether, and Āēr, Aěris, air, are found only in the singular, and have the accusative forms Aethěră and Aěră.

Hēros, Herois, hero, has acc. sing. Herõă, and acc. pl. Herõăs.

lampăs, lampădis, torch, has acc. sing. lampadă, and acc. pl. lampadăs.

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Of words used only in the plural we find in common use-
Māiores, ancestors.

Mānes, departed spirits.
Minores, posterity.

Pěnātes, household gods. fides, stringed instrument, is generally used in the plural, but the singular occurs.

Some nouns which are fully declined in the plural, are defective in some cases of the singular; such are—

ambāges, circuits, evasions. fruges, fruit. (I) compedes, fetters.

opes, resources. dăpes, feast.

preces, prayers. fauces, throat.

(I) sordes, filth.

REMARKS ON THE GENDERS OF CONSONANT-NOUNS.

58. Observe that nouns with stem-endings b, c, d, are chiefly feminine, and that with respect to the endings n, ?, t, which include five-sixths at least of the consonant-nouns in common

use, we find

1. Nouns in 0, -inis are chiefly feminine, as arundo, arundinis.

0, -ōnis are chiefly masculine, as Aquilo, Aquilonis.

io,-ionis are chiefly feminine, as actio, actionis. 2. Nouns in or, -oris are chiefly masculine, as Amor, Amoris. 3. Nouns in ās, -ātis, all feminine, as aestas, aestatis.

těs, -itis, chiefly masculine, as Eques, Equitis.
ūs, -ütis, all feminine, as virtus, virtutis.

2. Neuter Nouns. 59. The main body of nouns of this class consists of those neuter nouns whose stems end with the consonants n and r; most of them are declined like nõměn, name, and corpús, body; thusSINGULAR.

PLURAL.
N. Ac. V. nõměn.

N. Ac. V. nomină.
Gen. nominis.

Gen. nomi Num.
Dat.
nomini.

Dat. Abl. nominibus.
. nomině.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
N. Ac. V. corpus.

N. Ac. V. corporă.
Gen. corporis. Gen. corpo Rum.
Dat. corpori. Dat. Abl. corporibus.

Abl. corpore.
Similarly are declined—

agměn, agminis, marching army. lūmen, luminis, light. carmen, carminis, song.

nümen, numinis, divine influence. certāmen, certamīnis, contest. õmen, ominis, omen. crīmen, criminis, charge.

sēmen, seminis, seed. culmen, culminis, top.

stāmen, staminis, thread. flāmen, flaminis, blast.

tegmen, tegminis, covering. flūmen, fluminis, flood.

tūtāmen, tutaminis, defence. fulmen, fulminis, thunderbolt. vēlāmen, velaminis, veil. grāmen, graminis, grass.

vīmen, viminis, twig. līmen, liminis, threshold. děcès, decoris, honour.

foedūs, foederis, league. dēděcus, dedecoris, disgrace. fūnus, funeris, death. făcīnus, facinoris, action.

gěnus, generis, race. fēnus, fenóris, interest.

lătus, latěris, side. frīgus, frigoris, cold.

mūnus, muneris, office. lītus, litóris, shore.

Plus, olēris, garden-stuff. němus, nemoris, grove.

onus, oneris, burden. pěcus, pecoris, flock.

opus, opěris, work. pectus, pectoris, breast.

pondus, ponděris, weight. pignus, pignoris, pledge.

scēlus, sceleris, crime. tempus, temporis, time.

sīdus, sideris, star. tergus, tergöris, back.

vellus, vellēris, fleece.

vulnus, vulněris, wound. The nouns which follow are declined like

corpus,

but many

of them are defective in one or more cases of the plural.

aequor, aequoris, level surface, sea. murmur, murmuris, murmur. marmor, marmoris, marble, sea. ebur, eböris, ivory.

dcér, acēris, maple. fémur, femoris, thigh.

cădāver, cadaveris, corpse. bur, roboris, hard wood, strength. iter, itineris, journey. fulgur, fulgėris, lightning. păpāver, papaveris, poppy. guttur, guttŭris, throat.

süber, suběris, cork-tree. iécur, iecoris, liver.

tūber, tuběris, tumour, truffle, iecinoris,

über, uběris, udder.

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aes, aeris, bronze.

fel, fellis, gall.
fär, farris, corn.

měl, mellis, honey.
ös, õris, countenance.
crūs, crūris, leg.

căpăt, capitis, head.
iūs, iūris, right.

iūbăr, iubăris, beam of light. rūs, rūris, country.

nectăr, nectăris, nectar. tūs, tūris, frankincense.

vēr, vēris, spring-time-only in the singular.

lāc, lactis, milk-only in the singular. The following make the nominative plural in ia, and the genitive plural in ium :ănimăl, animālis, living creature. lăcūnăr, lacunāris, ceiling. tòrăl, torālis, coverlet.

lăqueăr, laqueāris, ceiling. calcăr, calcāris, spur.

pulvīnăr, pulvināris, cushioned seat. ós, ossis, bone, has in plural ossa, ossium, ossibus, etc.

A few Greek nouns in å make the genitive plural in um : such as have a dative and ablative plural form them in is instead of žbus; such are diădēmă, diademătis, crown. poēma, poemătis, poem. epigramma, epigrammatis, inscrip- peristrāma, peristromátis, coverlet.

tion, epigram. The nouns nihil or nil, nothing; opus, need; instăr, likeness, are only found in the nominative and accusative singular.

verběra, verberum, stripes, has in the singular only the genitive and ablative.

vās, vāsis, vessel, has a plural of the second declension-vāsa, vasorum, vasis, etc.

THE LOCATIVE OF THE CONSONANT-STEM

DECLENSION.

60. The original ending of the Locative in this declension was i : thus, Carthāgini, at Carthage; Neāpoli, at Naples; ruri, in the country. But usually the ablative in e is found, as Carthagine, rure; and that in ibus for plural nouns, as Gādibus, at Cadiz.

e

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