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NOMINATIVE SINGULAR. 61. Of the adjectives in which the nominative singular stands for all three genders, the most important class is that in which the nominative ends in -ns.

Declension of the adjective Recens, fresh.

N. V.
N. Ac. V. recentes

recentia Gen. recentis


recentium Dat. recenti

Dat. Abl.

recentibus Acc. recentem

recens Abl.

recenti (or ě) Similarly are declined all adjectives in -ens, -entis, or -ans, -antis, or -ons, -ontis, asabsens, absent.

neglègens, careless. constans, firm.

pătiens, enduring. dēmens, foolish.

potens, powerful diligens, careful.

prūdens, wary. insons, guiltless.

săpiens, wise. 62.

Declension of Felix, happy.


NEUT. N. V. fēlix

N. Ac. V. felices felicia Gen. felīcis



Dat. Abl. felicibus
Acc. felicem felix

felici (or ě)
Notice the following adjectives of one termination
anceps, ancìpitis, doubtful.

înops, inopis, helpless. audax, audācis, bold.

měmor, memoris, mindful. dēgener, degeneris, degenerate. pār, păris, equal. dīvěs, divịtis, rich.

pauper, pauperis, poor. fallax, fallācis, deceitful.

praeceps, praecipitis, headlong. hěběs, hěbětis, dull.

răpax, rapācis, grasping. infelix, infelicis, unhappy.

sospěs, sospitis, safe.




súperstěs, superstytis, surviving. über, uběris, fruitful.
supplex, supplicis, submissive. větůs, vetěris, old.
těrěs, těrětis, shapely.

victrix, victrīcis, victorious. The general rule of these declensions is that the ablative ends in ě or i, but usually in i.

Dives, pauper, sospes, and superstes have it in e only.
The N. Ac. V. neut. pl. of vetus is vetera, and the gen.

veterum. The N. Ac. V. neut. pl. of dives is ditia, and the gen. divitum. .

Many of the adjectives of one termination have no N. Ac. V. neuter plural; many make it in -a instead of -ia, and the genitive in -um instead of -ium.

63. The following may be studied with advantage, as being likely to fix the gender of certain nouns more firmly in the memory : Calor nimius, excessive heat. Iter longum, a long journey. Cervix valida, a brawny neck. Arbor frugifera, a fruitful tree. Dux neglegens, a careless leader. Aurea aetas, the golden age. Custos diligens, a watchful Mons altus, a lofty mountain. guardian.

Grave onus, a heavy burden.
Coniunx fidelis, a faithful spouse. Dura ilex, the tough holm-oak.
Mos antiquus, an ancient custom. Grex vagus, a wandering flock.
Frons serena, a calm brow. Lex antiqua, an ancient law.
Fons lucidus, a bright spring. Pes celer, a quick foot.
Quies perpetua, uninterrupted Laus magna, great praise.

Ignis fervidus, a glowing fire.
Palus uda, a wet swamp.

Nāvis ampla, a spacious ship. Amnis rapidus, a swift river. Hostis ferus, a savage enemy. Avis garrula, a chattering bird. Urbs pulchra, a fair city. Turris excelsa, a lofty tower. Lux clara, bright light. Testis vivus, a living witness. Lapis asper, a rugged stone. Iudex aequus, an impartial judge. Ordo lucidus, a clear arrangement. Vox acuta, a shrill voice.

Regio finitima, a neighbouring disImago vivida, a life-like portrait. trict. Mus exiguus, a tiny mouse. Ros gelidus, cool dew. Lepus timidus, a timorous hare. Abies ardua, a towering fir. Seges matura, a ripe crop. Bos piger, a lazy ox. Sors incerta, a dubious chance. Nomen splendidum, a glorious name. Nemus opācum, a shady grove. Rus amaenum, the charming country. DECLENSION OF NOUNS WITH U-STEMS.

64. Nouns of this division have the ending us in the nominative singular when they are Masculine or Feminine, and u when they are Neuter.

1. Nominative in us. There are two nouns-Sūs, suis, swine, and Grūs, gruis, crane, of common gender, which are declined with uncontracted forms; thusSINGULAR. PLURAL.

SINGULAR. PLURAL. Nom. Voc. grus


Nom. Voc. sus sues. Gen. gruis grUum.

Gen. suis sUum. Dat.

grui gruibus. Dat. sui suìbus (or sūbus). Acc. gruem grues.

Acc. suem

sues. Abl. gruě gruibus. Abl. suě suibus (or subus).

The other nouns of this division are declined like Fructùs, fruitSINGULAR.

Nom. Voc. Fructůs.

Nom. Ac. Voc. Fructūs.
Gen. Fructūs.


Dat. Fructui.

Dat. Ab. Fructibus.
Acc. Fructum.
Abl. Fructū.

NOTE.—The genitive Fructus is a contraction of Fructuis ; Fructu is a contraction of Fructue, and the full forms Fructui and Fructuum are often contracted into Fructu and Fructum.

Like Fructus are declined the following Masculine nouns, chiefly in sus and tus, which endings are comparatively rare in the 0 declension :

Aestus, tide.
Arcus, bow.
Cāsus, accident.
Cantus, singing.
Census, assessment.

Coetus, meeting.
Currus, chariot.
Cursus, course.
Exercitus, army.
Flātus, blast.

Flētus, weeping.
Flexus, winding.
Fluctus, wave.
Frěmitus, groan.
Gěmịtus, sigh.

Grădus, step.
Nīsus, effort.

Sinus, lap, bay.
Gressus, step.
Ortus, rising.

Situs, position, rust. Hālytus, breath. Partus, childbirth. Sonitus, sound. Haustus, draught. Passus, step.

Spīrytus, breath. Ictus, blow.

Pěnus, victuals. Tactus, touch.
Impětus, onset. Plausus, applause. Tonitrus, thunder.
Lăcus, lake.

Portus, harbour Tractus, extent.
Lapsus, gliding. Quaestus, gain. Tumultus, uproar.
Lūsus, sport.
Rīsus, laughter.

Ūsus, use.
Luxus, extravagance. Rītus, custom. Vestītus, clothing.
Mětus, fear.

Saltus, lawn or leaping. Victus, sustenance.
Morsus, bite.

Sensus, feeling. Vīsus, vision. Mõtus, movement. Singultus, sob. Vultus, countenance.

And the following Feminine nounsăcus, needle.

núrus, daughter-in-law. sõcrus, mother-in-law. anus, old woman. porticus, colonnade. tribus, tribe. mănus, hand.

quercus, oak. The following have ŭbus for žbus in the dative and ablative plurals, some dissyllable in -cus, as Arcus, acus, Lacus; also Partus, Portus, and tribus.

Artūs, joints, is rarely found in the singular, and has Artūbus
in dative and ablative.
The declension of domus, house, a Feminine noun, is-

Nom. domus.

Nom. domūs.
Gen. domūs.

Gen. domorum (or domuum).
Dat. domui (or domo).

Dat. domibus.
Acc. domum."

Acc. domus (or domos).
Voc. domus.

Voc. domus.
Abl. domo (or domu).

Abl. domibus. The forms in the brackets are rare, but used by classical writers.

Some Feminine words have forms of the U as well as the O declension; such are, cõlus, distaff, laurus, bay-tree, pinus, pine, myrtus, myrtle, ficus, fig.

Spěcus, cave, is used by Virgil as a Neuter noun, of which specubus is the ablative plural.

2. Nominative in u.

Nom. cornū.
Gen. cornūs.
Dat. cornū.
Acc. cornu,
Voc. cornu.
Abl. cornū.

N. Ac. V. cornua.

corn Uum.
Dat. Abl. cornibus.

This and gěnū, knee, are the only words to which anything like a complete declension of this form can be assigned.

There is an ablative form, gělū, frost, but the genitive gěli and the accusative gělum occur.

There is pecua and dative and ablative pecubus, cattle, as if from a nominative pěcu.

And there is věrůbus, a dative and ablative, from verù, spit.

DECLENSION OF E-NOUNS. 66. This declension includes a few nouns ending in ēs, of which two only are declined fully, res, thing, and dies, day. Res and all other nouns of this declension are feminine, except dies, which is of common gender in the singular, and masculine in the plural, and měrīdies, noon, which is masculine.

N. V. res.

Gen. - rei.

Dat. rei. diēi.
Acc. rem, diem.
. rē.


N. Ac. V. res.

Gen. rErum. DiErum.
Dat. Abl. rēbus. Diēbus.

NOTE.—The form of the genitive plural leads some grammarians to put these nouns with the A and O stems.

Most of the other nouns in this declension have only the nom. acc. and voc. plural, and some have no cases of the plural at all.

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