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ăcies, edge, battle array.

pauperies, poverty.
caesăries, long hair.

prõgenies, offspring.
effigies, likeness.
Měrīdies, noon.

răbies, madness.
făcies, face.

scăbies, roughness. fides, faith.

species, appearance. glacies, ice.

spes, hope. The e of the genitive is long after a vowel, as faciēi, and common after a consonant, as fiděi or fidēi.

The genitive is sometimes contracted, as fidē.

ON THE PERFECT TENSES of the INDICATIVE MOOD.

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67. The Perfect-Present represents an action as completed at the present time. Thus the Perfect-Present of Video, I see, which is Vidi, means I saw, or I have seen ; and the words Romam vidi, may mean I saw Rome, on some occasion in time past, or I have seen Rome, which may mean," at the time of speaking I have seen and still see Rome.”

Here observe one of the defects of Latin, that it has but one tense to express the simple momentary act in time past— I came, and the completed act, of which the effects continue to the present time, I have come, both of which are expressed by Vēni.

68. The Perfect Present of Active Verbs is formed in various ways, but always ends in i :1. By adding the syllable vi to the stem of the verb; which

may be regarded as the regular formation in the First

and Fourth Conjugations, as Amāvi, Audivi. 2. By adding ui to the stem, as Colui, from Colo, I till;

or to the stem after the removal of a final vowel, as

Secui, from Sěco, I cut; Monui, from Moneo, I advise. 3. By adding si to the stem, as Carpsi, from Carpo, I pluck. 4. By reduplication, that is, prefixing a syllable like that

of the first syllable of the stem, as Cucurri, from Curro, I run the first vowel being often changed to e, as Fefelli, from Fallo, I deceive.

a

5. By modifying the stem without adding a syllable, as

Egi, from Xgo, I drive; Volvi, from Volvo, I roll. NOTE.— When, by the addition of si to the verb-stem, s is brought into contact with a consonant, changes are made of which the following are examples

scribo has for its Perfect-Present scripsi.
duco

duxi.
rideo

risi. mitto

misi.

sumpsi. 69. The following is a list of some verbs in common use, to illustrate the various formations of the Perfect-Present.

The verbs to which D is prefixed take a dative to express the object favoured, hurt, etc.; thus, Faveo tibi, Noceo tibi.

sumo

First Conjugation. IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. åmo, love.

amāvi. līběro, set free. līběravi. cŭbo, lie down. cúbui,

sto, stand.

stěti. do, give.

dědi.
voco, call.

vocavi.

Second Conjugation. doceo, teach. docui. D noceo, hurt. D făveo, favour.

fāvi.

D pāreo, obey. fleo, weep.

flēvi. D plăceo, please. håbeo, have, hold. hăbui. rīdeo, smile. D indulgeo, yield. indulsi. sēdeo, sit. D invideo, envy.

invidi,

tăceo, be silent. iðbeo, order. iussi.

těneo, hold. lăteo, lie hid. lătui.

terreo, frighten. măneo, remain. mansi.

timeo, fear. moneo, advise.

mõnui.

video, see.

nocui,
pārui.
plăcui.
rīsi.
sēdi.
tăcui.
těnui.
terrui.
timui.
vidi.

Third Conjugation. ågo, drive.

ēgi.

consŭlo, consult. cădo, fall.

cěcidi. D crēdo, trust. căpio, take.

cēpi.

curro, run, D cēdo, yield to. cessi.

disco, learn. cognosco, recognise. cognovi. dīvydo, separate. condo, build. condidi. dūco, lead.

consúlui, crēdydi. cůcurri. didici, divisi. duxi.

fundo, pour.

IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. făcio, make. fēci.

D parco, spare. peperci. fallo, deceive. fefelli.

pěto, seek.

pětīvi. fingo, invent. finxi.

pūno, place. posui, fūdi.

relinquo, leave. reliqui. gěro, carry on. gessi,

scrībo, write. scripsi. incìpio, begin. incēpi.

sino, allow,

sivi. instruo, draw up. instruxi.

věno, carry

vexi. lego, read. lēgi.

vivo, live.

vixi, mitto, send. misi.

vinco, conquer.

vici.
Fourth Conjugation.
haurio, drain. hausi.

sentio, feel. sensi. D oboedio, obey. oboedivi. věnio, come. vēni. D servio, serve.

servivi.

vincio, bind. vinxi. 70. Removing the suffix i we get the Perfect Stem, as amav-, monu-, scrips-, vid-.

By adding to this stem the suffixes -ěram, and -ěro, we form the Perfect-Past and Perfect-Future; thus

amaveram, I had loved (at some specified past time); amavero, I shall have loved (at some specified future time). 71. These three Perfect Tenses are conjugated in the same way in all the conjugations; thus

INDICATIVE MOOD.

PERFECT TENSES.
Conjugation 1.

Conjugation 2.
PRESENT.

PRESENT. SING. 1. åmāvī, I loved, or I have monui, I advised, or I have advised. 2. amāvisti.

[loved. mõnuisti. 3. amăvit.

mõnuit. PLUR. 1. amāvýmůs.

monuimus. 2. åmāvistis.

mõnuistis. 3. ámāvērunt (or åmāvērě). mõnuērunt (or monuēre). PAST.

PAST. SING. 1. amāvěram, I had loved. monuěram, I had advised. 2. åmāvěrās.

monuěrās. 3. amāvěrát.

mõnuerit. PLUR. 1. amāvěrāmůs,

monuěrāmús. 2. amāvěrātis,

mõnuěrātis. 3. amāvěrant.

mõnuěranto

Conjugation 1.—continued.

FUTURE.
SING. 1. åmāvěro, I shall have loved.

2. åmāvērts.

3. ămẫvănit. PLUR. 1. åmāvěrímús.

2. amāvěritis.
3. amāvěrint.

Conjugation 2. continued.

FUTURE. monuěro, I shall have advised. mõnuěrňs. mõnuěrst. mõnuěrēmús. mõnuěrštis. monuerint.

Conjugation 3.

PRESENT.
SING. 1. rexi, I ruled, or I have ruled.

2. rexistī.

3. rexit. PLUR. 1. rexímús.

2. rexistis.
3. rexērunt (or rexere).

Conjugation 4.

PRESENT.
audīvī, I heard, or I have heard.
audīvisti.
audivit.
audīvīmús.
audīvistis.
audīvērunt (or audivērē).

PAST.
audīvěram, I had heard.
audīvěrās.
audīvěrăt.
audīvěrāmŭs.
audīvěrātis.
audivèrant.

PAST.
SING. 1. rexěram, I had ruled.

2. rexěrās.

3. rexễrắt. PLUR. 1. rexěrāmús.

2. rexěrātis.
3. rexerant.

FUTURE.
SING. 1. rexěro, I shall have ruled.

2. rexěrñs.

3. rexerit. PLUR. 1. rexěrěmůs.

2. rexěritis,
3. rexěrint.

FUTURE. audīvěro, I shall have heard. audīvěrss. audīvěrît. audīvěrímús. audīvěrstřs. audīvěrint.

Perfect Tenses of Sum.

Past.
SING. 1. fúi, I was, or I fůěram, I had been.

PRESENT.

2. fùistī. [have been. fúěrās.
3. füst.

fuerit. PLUR. 1. fŭimŭs.

fůěrāmús. 2. fŭistis.

fủěrātis. 3. fủērunt.

fůěrant.

FUTURE. fůěro, I shall have fůěris. [been. fůěrīt. fůěrěmus. fůěrstis. fůěrint.

72. EXTENDED List of PREPOSITIONS in COMMON USE.

WITH ACCUSATIVE.
Ad, to.
Apud, near.
Ante, before.
Circum, around.
Contra, against.
Extra, outside.
Inter, among.
Intra, within.
Ob, on account of.
Per, through.
Post, after, behind.
Praeter, except.
Propter, on account of, near.
Trans, across.

WITH ABLATIVE.
A, ab, from, by.
Cum, with.
De, concerning, down from.
E, ex, out of
Pro, for, in behalf of, in

front of.
Sine, without.

WITH ACCUSATIVE AND ABLATIVE.

In, into, in.
Sub, under.
Super, over, upon.
Subter, under.

NOTE 1.-In and Sub with the Accusative are much used with verbs of motion.

In and Sub with the Ablative are much used with verbs of rest.

NOTE 2.— The Preposition is often inserted between the noun and the adjective

Magno cum periculo, at great risk.
Multis de causis, for many reasons.

NOTE 3.-A genitive depending on a noun is often placed between the noun and the preposition that governs it; thus

Pompeium in amicorum numero habeo, I regard Pompeius

as a friend.

73. The following are examples of the use of the Perfect in simple sentences :

Hostium clamor milites terruit.
Caesar in Gallia bellum gessit.
Librum de Amicitia scripsit Cicero.

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