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ăcies, edge, battle array.
scăbies, roughness. fides, faith.
species, appearance. glacies, ice.
spes, hope. The e of the genitive is long after a vowel, as faciēi, and common after a consonant, as fiděi or fidēi.
The genitive is sometimes contracted, as fidē.
ON THE PERFECT TENSES of the INDICATIVE MOOD.
67. The Perfect-Present represents an action as completed at the present time. Thus the Perfect-Present of Video, I see, which is Vidi, means I saw, or I have seen ; and the words Romam vidi, may mean I saw Rome, on some occasion in time past, or I have seen Rome, which may mean," at the time of speaking I have seen and still see Rome.”
Here observe one of the defects of Latin, that it has but one tense to express the simple momentary act in time past— I came, and the completed act, of which the effects continue to the present time, I have come, both of which are expressed by Vēni.
68. The Perfect Present of Active Verbs is formed in various ways, but always ends in i :1. By adding the syllable vi to the stem of the verb; which
may be regarded as the regular formation in the First
and Fourth Conjugations, as Amāvi, Audivi. 2. By adding ui to the stem, as Colui, from Colo, I till;
or to the stem after the removal of a final vowel, as
Secui, from Sěco, I cut; Monui, from Moneo, I advise. 3. By adding si to the stem, as Carpsi, from Carpo, I pluck. 4. By reduplication, that is, prefixing a syllable like that
of the first syllable of the stem, as Cucurri, from Curro, I run the first vowel being often changed to e, as Fefelli, from Fallo, I deceive.
5. By modifying the stem without adding a syllable, as
Egi, from Xgo, I drive; Volvi, from Volvo, I roll. NOTE.— When, by the addition of si to the verb-stem, s is brought into contact with a consonant, changes are made of which the following are examples
scribo has for its Perfect-Present scripsi.
sumpsi. 69. The following is a list of some verbs in common use, to illustrate the various formations of the Perfect-Present.
The verbs to which D is prefixed take a dative to express the object favoured, hurt, etc.; thus, Faveo tibi, Noceo tibi.
First Conjugation. IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. åmo, love.
amāvi. līběro, set free. līběravi. cŭbo, lie down. cúbui,
stěti. do, give.
Second Conjugation. doceo, teach. docui. D noceo, hurt. D făveo, favour.
D pāreo, obey. fleo, weep.
flēvi. D plăceo, please. håbeo, have, hold. hăbui. rīdeo, smile. D indulgeo, yield. indulsi. sēdeo, sit. D invideo, envy.
tăceo, be silent. iðbeo, order. iussi.
těneo, hold. lăteo, lie hid. lătui.
terreo, frighten. măneo, remain. mansi.
timeo, fear. moneo, advise.
Third Conjugation. ågo, drive.
consŭlo, consult. cădo, fall.
cěcidi. D crēdo, trust. căpio, take.
curro, run, D cēdo, yield to. cessi.
disco, learn. cognosco, recognise. cognovi. dīvydo, separate. condo, build. condidi. dūco, lead.
consúlui, crēdydi. cůcurri. didici, divisi. duxi.
IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. IMPERFECT-PRESENT. PERFECT-PRESENT. făcio, make. fēci.
D parco, spare. peperci. fallo, deceive. fefelli.
pětīvi. fingo, invent. finxi.
pūno, place. posui, fūdi.
relinquo, leave. reliqui. gěro, carry on. gessi,
scrībo, write. scripsi. incìpio, begin. incēpi.
sivi. instruo, draw up. instruxi.
vexi. lego, read. lēgi.
vixi, mitto, send. misi.
sentio, feel. sensi. D oboedio, obey. oboedivi. věnio, come. vēni. D servio, serve.
vincio, bind. vinxi. 70. Removing the suffix i we get the Perfect Stem, as amav-, monu-, scrips-, vid-.
By adding to this stem the suffixes -ěram, and -ěro, we form the Perfect-Past and Perfect-Future; thus
amaveram, I had loved (at some specified past time); amavero, I shall have loved (at some specified future time). 71. These three Perfect Tenses are conjugated in the same way in all the conjugations; thus
PRESENT. SING. 1. åmāvī, I loved, or I have monui, I advised, or I have advised. 2. amāvisti.
[loved. mõnuisti. 3. amăvit.
mõnuit. PLUR. 1. amāvýmůs.
monuimus. 2. åmāvistis.
mõnuistis. 3. ámāvērunt (or åmāvērě). mõnuērunt (or monuēre). PAST.
PAST. SING. 1. amāvěram, I had loved. monuěram, I had advised. 2. åmāvěrās.
monuěrās. 3. amāvěrát.
mõnuerit. PLUR. 1. amāvěrāmůs,
monuěrāmús. 2. amāvěrātis,
mõnuěrātis. 3. amāvěrant.
3. ămẫvănit. PLUR. 1. åmāvěrímús.
Conjugation 2. continued.
FUTURE. monuěro, I shall have advised. mõnuěrňs. mõnuěrst. mõnuěrēmús. mõnuěrštis. monuerint.
3. rexit. PLUR. 1. rexímús.
3. rexễrắt. PLUR. 1. rexěrāmús.
3. rexerit. PLUR. 1. rexěrěmůs.
FUTURE. audīvěro, I shall have heard. audīvěrss. audīvěrît. audīvěrímús. audīvěrstřs. audīvěrint.
Perfect Tenses of Sum.
2. fùistī. [have been. fúěrās.
fuerit. PLUR. 1. fŭimŭs.
fůěrāmús. 2. fŭistis.
fủěrātis. 3. fủērunt.
FUTURE. fůěro, I shall have fůěris. [been. fůěrīt. fůěrěmus. fůěrstis. fůěrint.
72. EXTENDED List of PREPOSITIONS in COMMON USE.
WITH ACCUSATIVE AND ABLATIVE.
In, into, in.
NOTE 1.-In and Sub with the Accusative are much used with verbs of motion.
In and Sub with the Ablative are much used with verbs of rest.
NOTE 2.— The Preposition is often inserted between the noun and the adjective
Magno cum periculo, at great risk.
NOTE 3.-A genitive depending on a noun is often placed between the noun and the preposition that governs it; thus
Pompeium in amicorum numero habeo, I regard Pompeius
as a friend.
73. The following are examples of the use of the Perfect in simple sentences :
Hostium clamor milites terruit.