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Pastores ad fluvium pecora egerunt.
Oculos natura nobis dedit.
Caesar in oppidum milites duxit.
Pompeius Sardiniam cum classe venit.
Pompeius in Macedoniam cum exercitu venit.
Servo libertatem dominus dedit.
Pater de filii' morte flevit.
Romulus in Capitolio templum Iovis condidit.
Caesar Helvetios in hostium numero habuit.
Ad cenam Varius me vocavit.
Sub nomine pacis bellum latuit.
Romulum lupa nutrivit.
Arcem urbis ab incendio liberavi.

ADVERBS. 74. An Adverb is a word used to qualify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It has no inflexions.

The following adverbs are of common use in the simple sentence(1.) Adverbs of Place, answering the question where ? —

Hic, here. Ibi, there. Indě, thence. Procŭl, far away. (2.) Adverbs of Manner, answering the question How ?

Sic, so. Ită, thus. (3.) Adverbs of Time, answering the question When?

— Nunc, now. Mox, presently. Sempěr, always. Rāro, seldom.

Tum, then. Nūper, lately. Nunquam, never. Saepe, often. (4.) Adverbs of Negation

Non, not. Haud, by no means.
Haud is not used with verbs in Latin prose, except scio,

I know, and dubito, I doubt. (5.) Adverbs of Interrogation

Cūr, why? Ŭbž, where ? Undě, whence? Quando, when ?

(6.) Adverbs of Degree, answering the question to what extent ? Vix, scarcely. Propě, almost.

Valdē, exceedingly. Sătis, sufficiently. Nimium, too much. Părum, but little.

75. Almost every adjective in common use has an adverb formed from it.

Adverbs formed from adjectives of the O and A declension usually end in ē, as rectē, rightly; misérē, wretchedly; aegrē, hardly. But běně, well, and mălē, badly, have the e short.

Some of these adverbs end in 7, as tuto, safely, falso, falsely.

Adverbs formed from adjectives of the I declension usually end in ter, as fēliciter, happily, audacter, boldly, fortiter, bravely, constanter, firmly.


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76. A word or phrase in a sentence defining the place, time, manner, cause, or purpose of an action is called an Adverbial Expression. Examples of such words and phrases are(1.) The ablatives of some nouns, asordine, in orderly

fashion ; jure, legally, rightly; more, according to custom ; vi, forcibly; nocte, by night; aestate, in the

summer; hieme, in the winter. (2.) A noun and the preposition with which it is connected,

as—ex natura, naturally, in accordance with nature ; cum consilio, deliberately; ex animo, heartily; sine

dubio, unquestionably. (3.) A noun in the ablative qualified by an adjective, as

aequo animo, calmly; magno opere, vigorously. (4.) A noun in the ablative qualified by an adjective and

governed by a preposition, as—magna ex parte, to a great extent, chiefly; multis de causis, for many reasons; magno cum periculo, at great risk.


ATTRIBUTIVE EXPRESSIONS. 77. By an Attributive Expression we mean any word or words, other than the simple adjective, added to the subject or object to define or limit its meaning. Examples of such expressions are(1.) Another noun standing in the same case as the subject

or object. This is called Apposition. Cicero consul in aedem Concordiae senatum convocavit,

Cicero, as Consul, summoned the senate to the temple

of Concord. (2.) A genitive qualifying the subject or object :

Hostium legati ad castra Caesaris venerunt.

Mons Iura fines Sequanorum ab Helvetiis dividit. (3.) A prepositional phrase qualifying the subject or object :

Pauci de nostris ceciderunt, A few of our men fell.
Librum de Amicitia scripsit Cicero, Cicero wrote a

treatise on Friendship. NOTE 1.-A noun in apposition is often qualified by an attribute or attributive expression :

Mausõlus, rex Cariae, Artemisiam habuit coniugem,

Mausolus, king of Caria, had a wife named Artemisia. Plato Speusippum, sororis filium, philosophiae heredem

reliquit, Plato left Speusippus, his sister's son, heir of his

philosophy. NOTE 2.—Such a phrase as Canum amor in dominos, the affection of dogs for their masters, when expressed in the form of a simple sentence, becomes Canes amant dominos, and hence Canum is called a subjective genitive, because the word corresponding to it is the subject of the corresponding sentence.

But such a phrase as Amor patriae, patriotism, when expressed as a simple sentence, becomes Homines amant patriam, and , hence patriae is called an objective genitive, because the word corresponding to it is the object of the corresponding senNOTE 3.—The Objective Genitive in Latin, denoting the object of an action implied in the noun that it qualifies, is often used in phrases where in English we use the Prepositions for, about, from. ENGLISH.


Resentment for a wrong.

Dolor injuriae.
Escape from danger.

Fuga periculi.
A craving for gain.

Fames lucri.
Sleep is a refuge from all toils. Somnus est perfugium omnium

Anxiety about the body.

Cura corporis.

NOTE 4.-The Attributive Adjective is used in Latin in many cases where we use Prepositions, such as of, in, against; thus

Mons summus, the top of the mountain.
Sullanus exercitus, the army of Sulla.
Media aestas, the middle of the summer.
Bellum Africanum, the war in Africa.
Bellum Mithridaticum, the war against Mithridates.
Reliqua Graecia, the rest of Greece.
Italia tota, the whole of Italy.

NOTE 5.—Observe carefully the following distinctions :-

Urbs Roma.

The city of Rome.
Sardinia insula.

The island of Sardinia.
Civis Romanus.

A citizen of Rome.
Civis Atheniensis.

A citizen of Athens.
Graecus homo.

A Greek.
Homo Romanus.

A Roman.
Vir patricius.

A patrician.

Note 6.- The Objective Genitive follows many adjectives in Latin to express the object of desire, knowledge, etc., implied in the adjective; thus

cupidus belli, eager for war.
avidus laudis, craving for praise.


78. Taking the chief type-form of the simple sentence ($ 14), Subject, Verb, Object, we can now expand it thus :Subject + attribute | Verb + adverbial expression | Object + attribute.

The terms that follow the + in each case do not of course always occur, but when they do occur they must be taken with the terms that precede the +. Take for example the following sentences : Mors honesta saepe vitam turpem exornat, An honour

able death often covers with glory a disgraceful life. Viri fortes in acie vulnera non sentiunt, Brave men do

not feel wounds in the midst of the battle. We should arrange them thus :SUBJECT-PHRASE. VERB-PHRASE. OBJECT-PHRASE. Mors honesta

vitam turpem. Viri fortes in acie non sentiunt vulnera. Now if we use the term Attributive to denote an Attribute or Attributive expression, and the term Adverbial to denote an Adverb or Adverbial expression, we may represent our expanded type-form thus : SUBJECT-PHRASE. VERB-PHRASE.

OBJECT-PHRASE. Subject+ Attributive. Verb+ Adverbial. Object+ Attributive.

The learner should be taught to arrange simple sentences in this fashion, and in construing, to give the English for the words in each division collectively and not separately; for example,

Mausolus, rex Cariae , habuit | Artemisiam coniugem, and not to render it word by word, thus--Mausolus, Mausolus; rex, king; Cariae, of Caria.

saepe exornat

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