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VERBAL NOUNS.

I. THE INFINITIVE.

79. The Latin Infinitive is to be regarded as a Neuter Noun, used occasionally as a nominative, and very frequently as an accusative.

The Infinitive may, as a nominative, be the subject of a sentence, as,

Turpe est invidere, To be envious is disgraceful.

Nunquam est utile peccare, To do wrong is never expedient. The Infinitive may, as an accusative, be the object of a verb, as

Dormire cupio, I long to go to sleep. The Infinitive governs the same case as the verb to which it belongs, as

Cupio te videre, I desire to see you. The Infinitive is qualified by adverbs and not by adjectives,

as

Difficile est longum subito deponere amorem.

-Ov.
It is hard to put aside suddenly love that is of long standing.

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80. The Infinitive Mood in Latin contains, in the Active Voice, two simple tenses, called

I. Present, as Amare, to love.

II. Past, as Amavisse, to have loved. N.B.—The words Present and Past are here used by custom and for convenience. These tenses of the Infinitive refer to the state of the action, as incomplete or complete, and take their time from the context of the sentence. The Future is expressed by a compound tense : see & 88.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

CONJUGATION 1. CONJUGATION 2. CONJUGATION 3. CONJUGATION 4. PRESENT, åmāre.

monēre. règěrě. audīrē. PAST,

amāvisse. mõnuisse. rexissě. audīvisse.

grove.- VIRG.

81. Many verbs are followed by an Infinitive expressing the object of the verb; for example, out of the list in $ 69, incipio,

, paro, scio, disco, veto, opto :Vincere incipit dolorem timor, Fear begins to get the mastery

over pain. In nemus ire parant, They prepare to go into the Vincere scis, You know how to conquer. Vulneribus didicit miles habere metum, By wounds the soldier

has learnt to feel alarm.0v. Ab opere milites Caesar discedere vetuerat, Caesar had for

bidden the soldiers to discontinue their work. Piger optat arare caballus, The lazy hack desires to drag the

plough.-HOR.

amo

moneo

II. THE SUPINES. 82. Two verbal forms, called Supines (a word without meaning), are in reality Nouns with the endings -um and -u of the accusative and ablative cases of the U declension. Thus the supines of

are amātum and amātā,

monitum monitū, dico dictum dictū,

audio auditum audītu. The supine in-um is used to express the purpose of an action : Aedui legatos ad Caesarem mittunt rogatum auxilium, The

Aedui send envoys to Caesar to beg for help.
Lacedaemonii Agesilaum bellatum miserunt in Asiam, The

Spartans sent Agesilaus into Asia to wage war.
Also with verbs of motion, as Ire lusum, to go to play.
The supine in -u is chiefly used with certain adjectives :-

Perfacile est factu, It is very easy of execution.
Turpe dictu est, It is shameful to mention.

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83. Leaving out the endings -um and -u we get the Supine Stem; and this is of great importance, for from it are formed

the Past and Future Participles of Verbs (8 88), and with it
are connected
(1.) The chief part of the nouns of the U declension ; thus-
VERB.
SUPINE.

U-NOUN (MASCULINE).
cado
cāsum

cāsus.
cantum

cantus.

cano

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amo

moneo

suasum

(2.) A very large class of consonant-nouns ending in -tor and -sor, denoting agents ; thusVERB.

SUPINE. R-NOUN (MASCULINE). amātum

amātor, lover. monitum

monitor, monitor.
suadeo

suasor, adviser.
rego
rectum

rector, ruler.
scribo
scriptum

scriptor, writer.
audio
audītum

audītor, hearer. (3.) A great number of Abstract Nouns in -io, expressing action, all feminine; asVERB. SUPINE.

NOUN IN -io.
ago
actum

actio, action.
ěmo
emptum

emptio, purchase.
dēdo
deditum

deditio, surrender.
monitum

monitio, warning. suadeo

suasio, advice.

moneo

suasum

III. THE GERUNDS. 84. The verbal forms called Gerunds (from gerere, to carry on), as amandi, amando, amandum, may be regarded as cases of a Neuter Noun. They correspond to English verbals, such as fighting, singing, living, and are often used in turning such verbals into Latin when they are preceded in English by a preposition. The Genitive and Ablative forms are frequently found : Gen. Catonis filius amore pugnandi in exercitu remansit,

Cato's son, through love of fighting, stayed with the

troops. Abl. Nihil agendo homines male agere discunt, By doing

nothing men learn to do ill.

The Accusative is generally qualified by an adverb, and is chiefly used with the prepositions ad and in.

Breve tempus aetatis satis longum est ad bene vivendum,

A short life is long enough for living well. The Dative is seldom used : it occurs in the phrase, Solvendo esse, to be able to pay one's debts. Ovid describes a frog as having Crura apta natando, legs adapted to swimming.

85. A Gerund may be followed by the same case as that which follows the verb to which the gerund belongs, thus

Nulla causa contra patriam arma capiendi est justa, No

reason for taking up arms against one's native land is defensible.

VERBAL ADJECTIVES.

I. THE GERUNDIVE.

a

86. The Gerundive is a verbal adjective declined like Durus, as amandus, amanda, amandum. The nominative generally occurs in a passive sense ; examples are

Nomina nova novis rebus sunt ponenda, New names must be

given to new things. Delenda est Carthago, Carthage must be destroyed. Tempori serviendum est, One must adapt one's-self to cir

cumstances.

87. When the gerund would be followed by an accusative, the gerundive is generally used, standing in the same case as that in which the gerund would have stood. The noun is then put in the case of the gerundive, and the gerundive is made to agree with the noun in number and gender. Thus to express "a reason for changing a plan,” we might

” have

causa mutandi consilium (Gerund), but much more commonly we find

causa mutandi consilii (Gerundive).

The following are examples of the use of the gerundive S Gen. Clodius causam mutandi consilii finxit, Clodius

framed a pretext for changing his plan. Dat. Me Albani gerendo bello ducem creavere, The

Albans have made me their leader for carrying on

the war.

Acc. Locus pro castris erat ad aciem instruendam natura

idoneus, There was a spot in front of the camp

naturally adapted for drawing up a line of battle. Abl. Librum de contemnenda morte scripsit Cicero,

Cicero wrote a book on contempt of death.

II. THE PARTICIPLES. 88. The Participles may be regarded as Verbal adjectives.

A Transitive Verb in Latin has usually three Participles, called

(Active) Present, as amans, loving; declined like recens.
(Active) Future, as amaturus, about to love, declined like

durus. (Passive) Past, as amatus, beloved, declined like durus. Intransitive Verbs have only the Active Participles, thus from curro,

I run, we have currens and cursurus; and in some cases the neuter of the Past Participle, as pugnatum, from pugno (see p. 103).

1. The Present Participle ends in ans in the first conjugation, and in ens in the other three, thus :

I. oro, I beseech, orans, beseeching.
II. fleo, I weep, flens, weeping.
III. scribo, I write,
I

scribens, writing.
IV. audio, I hear, audiens, hearing.
2. The Future Participle is used to express a purpose, as

Galli legatos pacem petituros Romam miserunt, The

Gauls sent envoys to Rome to sue for peace. The Present and Past tenses of the Infinitive of sum, which are esse and fuisse, are combined with the Future Parti

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