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ciples of other verbs to form Future tenses for the Infinitive Mood, as amaturus esse, to be about to love, and amaturus fuisse, to have been about to love.

Sum has a simple future, förě, and a compound future, fútūrus esse, in its Infinitive mood.

3. The Past Participle is very extensively used.

The Perfect tenses of the Passive voice are formed by combining this participle with parts of the verb sum ; thus

amatus sum, I have been loved, or, I was loved.
victus est, He has been conquered, or, He was conquered.

victus erat, He had been conquered. NOTE.—This participle is often used in quick and lively narration as a predicate without the insertion of any copula ; thus

Fusi hostes, The enemy were routed.

Oppidum captum, The town was taken.
So also the Gerundive-

Laudandus Regulus, Regulus is deserving of praise.
Nil desperandum, There is no need for despair.

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. 89. The Imperative is used to express a Command or Entreaty.

It has but one tense, the forms of which are applicable to the immediate or remote future. Conjugation 1.

Conjugation 2. SING. àmā or åmāto, love thou.

monē, monēto, advise thou. åmātē, let him love.

monēto, let him advise. PLUR. àmātě or åmātote, love ye. monēte, monētōte, advise ye. åmanto, let them love.

mõnento, let them advise. Conjugation 3.

Conjugation 4. SING. règě or regìto, rule thou. audī or audīto, hear thou. règito, let him rule.

audīto, let him hear. Plur. règětě or règitātě, rule ye. audītě or audītõtě, hear

ye. regunto, let them rule.

audiunto, let them hear.

Da spatium vitae, multos da, Iuppiter, annos, Grant length

of life, grant, 0 Jupiter, many years.-Juv.
Solvite me, pueri, Release me, boys.-VIRG.
Ne is used as a negative with the imperative-

Tu ne cede malis, Yield not to misfortunes.—VIRG.
O formose puer, nimium ne crede colori, O handsome boy,

trust not too much to beauty.VIRG. The forms in -to and -tote are apparently used by prose writers with emphasis

Ad me litteras mitte, Send me a letter.
Ad me litteras mittito, Be sure you send me a letter.

Imperative Mood of Sum, SING. és or esto, be thou.

PLUR. estě or estõtě, be ye. esto, let him be.

sunto, let them be.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 90. The Subjunctive is the mood of,

1. Suggestion, as distinguished from Command (Imperative). 2. Thought, as distinguished from Fact (Indicative).

It has four tenses, two Imperfect and two Perfect. The English renderings of these tenses are various, and must be learnt by the translation of Latin sentences.



Conjugation 1.

PRESENT. SING. 1. amem.

2. mēs.

3. amět. PLUR. 1. amēmůs,

2. amētis.
3. ament.

Conjugation 2.


Conjugation 3. Conjugation 4.

PRESENT. règam. audiam. régās.

audiās. règăt.

audiat. rēgāmůs.

audiāmus. règatis. audiātis. régant. audiant.


Conjugation 1.

PAST, SING. 1. amārem.

2. åmārēs.

3. amārět. PLUR. 1. åmārēmus.

2. åmārētis.
3. amārent.

Conjugation 2. Conjugation 3. Conjugation 4.



audirem. mõnērēs. régěrēs. audīrēs. monērēt. régěrět. audīrēt. monērēmůs.

régěrēmús. audīrēmŭs. monērētis.

régěrētis. audirētis. mònērent. régèrent. audīrent.

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SING. 1. åmāvissem. mõnuissem. rexissem. audivissem.

2. amāvissēs. monuissēs. rexissēs. audīvissēs.

3. ámāvissět. monuissět. rexissět. audivisset. Plur. 1. amāvissēmůs. mõnuissēmůs. rexissēmůs. audīvissēmės.

2. åmāvissētis. mõnuissētis. rexissētis. audīvissētis.
3. åmāvissent. monuissent. rexissent. audīvissent.

Subjunctive Mood of Sum.


PRESENT. SING. 1. sim.

2. sīs.

3. sắt. PLUR. 1. simus.

2. sītis.
3. sint.

SING. 1. essem or forem.

2. essēs or förēs.

3. essèt or forět. PLUR. 1. essēmŭs or förēmús.

2. essētis or forētis. 3. essent or forent.


SING. 1. fŭěrim.

2. fůěrňs.
3. fủěrst.

SING. 1. fŭissem.

2. fŭissēs.
3. fúisset.

PLUR. 1. fůěrňmus.

2. fúěrstis.
3. fúerint.

PLUR. 1. fùissēmůs.

2. fŭissētis.
3. fŭissent.

91. The Subjunctive is used in the simple sentence to express a wish, a prayer, an exhortation, or a warning. 1. A wish, with or without utinam, O that :Sis felix, May you be happy.

Utinam tuis litteris paruissem, Would that I had followed

the advice of your letter !
Utinam frater meus viveret, Would that my

brother were still living ! 2. A prayer

Det vitam, det opes, May he (Jupiter) grant me life !

may he grant me wealth !-HOR. 3. An exhortation, generally in the plural, supplying the

want of a first person in the ImperativeAmemus patriam, pareamus senatui, Let us love our

country, let us obey the senate. 4. A warning against doing something, with the negative ne. The perfect is generally used when a particular person is addressed

Ne me monueris, Do not advise me.
Ne mortem timueris, Do not fear death.

92. Of the eight kinds into which Latin words are divided, we have already mentioned six, viz., Verb, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Preposition, and Adverb. The remaining two are the Conjunction and the Interjection.


93. These are either sounds expressing sudden feelings, as of joy, sorrow, approbation; as, Io, Hurrah / Heu, Alas! Euge, Well done! or abbreviated sentences, as

mehercule = me, Hercule, iuves, So help me, Hercules. medius fidius = me Deus Fidius iuvet, So may the God of

Faith help me.

94. Interjections are followed by various cases

Vocative—Io triumphe, Hurrah for the triumph!
Accusative-O hominem felicem, What a happy fellow !
Nominative-0 vir fortis, What a brave man!
Dative-Vae victis, Woe to the vanquished !


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