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PART II.

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE.

95. A Compound Sentence contains two or more Simple Sentences.

If they are connected, but grammatically independent of each other, they are called Co-ordinate Sentences.

If they are not independent of each other, one is called the Principal Sentence, and the others Subordinate Sentences.

CONJUNCTIONS.

96. Conjunctions are uninflected words used to join words to words, phrases to phrases, and sentences to sentences. They may be arranged in two classes :I. Co-ordinative Conjunctions, which join words to words,

phrases to phrases, and co-ordinate sentences to

co-ordinate sentences. II. Subordinative Conjunctions, which join subordinate

sentences to principal sentences.

I. CO-ORDINATIVE CONJUNCTIONS.

97. These may be conveniently divided into six kinds :

1. Copulative Conjunctions, as et, and; etiam, also.
2. Disjunctive Conjunctions, as aut, or.
3. Adversative Conjunctions, as sed, but.
4. Inferential Conjunctions, as igitur, therefore.
5. Causal Conjunctions, as nam, for.
6. Comparative Conjunctions, as ut, as.

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98. In this and the following Sections, to § 102, is a list of the Co-ordinative Conjunctions used in the sentences of Part II. :1. COPULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS.—And-wordset, and. Deus mundum sustinet et gubernat, God up

holds and regulates the universe. -que, and, which is always annexed to the end of a word

Deo maria terraeque oboediunt, Seas and lands

obey God.—Cic. Pan curat oves oviumque magistros, Pan cares

for sheep and shepherds too.—VIRG. atque, and. Galli Caesaris gratiam atque amicitiam quaere

bant, The Gauls were trying to win the

favour and friendship of Caesar. ac, and, which should never be followed by a word

beginning with a vowel or hMors est laborum ac miseriarum finis, Death

is the end of toils and troubles. NOTE 1.—Que connects more closely than et, the words united by que often making up a single notion, as in the phrase Senatus populusque Romanus. NOTE 2.

Atque and ac are often used when the word that follows is more emphatic than that which precedes, so that the sense is, and moreover

Te rogo atque oro, I beg, nay I implore you. NOTE 3.-Copulative Conjunctions are frequently doubled; thus

Et longum est iter et non tutum, The road is long and

unsafe. Que ... que is almost restricted to poetry, as

Munera, crede mihi, capiunt hominesque deosque, Gifts,

take my word for it, win the favour of men and gods. NOTE 4.-Et often means even, as

Et puero est perspicuum, Even a child can understand it.

99. A verb referring to two or more personal subjects is put in the plural, as

Romulus et Remus gemini fratres erant, Romulus and

Remus were twin brothers. When the subjects are not all persons this rule is not always observed, because the subjects are sometimes regarded as making up one single notion, thus

Homines caecos reddit cupiditas et avaritia, Greed and

covetousness make men blind. When more than two subjects are named, connect all with conjunctions or none, thus

Pompeius et Caesar et Crassus, or Pompeius, Caesar,

Crassus. When one of the subjects is in the first person, the verb is in the first person

Ego et Cicero valemus, Cicero and I are well. When one of the subjects is in the second person, and no one of them in the first person, the verb is usually in the second person, but sometimes in the third

Si tu et Tullia valetis, If Tullia and you are well.
Et tu et omnes homines sciunt, You and all men know.

100. An adjective placed as an attribute of two or more nouns is put in the plural, and in the masculine gender if one of the nouns be masculinePater mihi et mater mortui sunt, My father and my

mother are dead. Metellum multi filii, filiae, nepotes, neptes in rogum im

posuerunt, Many sons, daughters, grandsons, and grand

daughters placed Metellus on the funeral pile. If the nouns are things that have not life, the adjective is usually in the neuter

Inter se contraria sunt beneficium et iniuria, A benefit and

a wrong are contrary to each other.

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Sometimes the adjective agrees with the noun nearest to itMe Romae viri et mulieres multae viderunt, Many men and

women saw me at Rome. Notice carefully how emphasis is obtained by separating an adjective from its noun by words on which both depend

Iustitia omnium est domina et regina virtutum, Justice is

mistress and queen of all the virtues. 101. Quoque and Etiam are the Latin words for also.

NOTE 1.- Quoque generally qualifies the word after which it stands

Tu quoque me deseris, You too forsake me.

Amavit nos quoque Daphnis, Daphnis loved us too.-VIRG. NOTE 2.-Etiam atque etiam = again and again. .

Etiam nunc = even now.
Non modo ... sed etiam = not merely ... but even.
Non solum ... sed etiam = not only . but also.

-ve,

either ....

or.

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102. 2. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS.—Or-words. The Latin equivalents for or are aut, vel, -ve, sive, and seu. like

-que, is always attached to the end of a word. NOTE 1.-aut aut vel ..;. vel

= either

= either NOTE 2.—nec.

neither neque

neque = neither NOTE 3.-sive seu

= whether
= whether ... or.

-ve.

-ve

or.

nec

nor.

nor.

or.

seu

seu

3. ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS.But-words.

Of these the most common are—sed, but ; autem, but; tamen, but still; at, but yet ; verum, but in fact.

4. INFERENTIAL CONJUNCTIONS.Therefore-words.

Igitur, therefore ; ergo, therefore; itaque, and thus.

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5. CAUSAL CONJUNCTIONS.—For-words.

Nam, for; enim, for; namque, for; etenim, for. 6. COMPARATIVE CONJUNCTIONS.- As-words.

Ut, as; quam, than or as ; quasi, as if ; tamquam, as it

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NOTE.—For Nostrum and Vestrum we often find the singular forms Nostri and Vestri, when several persons are spoken of as a collective body.

Nostri and Vestri often occur where we might expect mei and tui.

(3.) Sui, of himself. This pronoun is called reflexive, because it refers to a subject of the Third Person already mentioned in the sentence, and usually the subject of the sentence. It has no nominative, and is declined thus :

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