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POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE.

SUPERLATIVE. sătis, sufficiently.

satius. sècus, otherwise.

sētius or sequius. intus, within.

intěrius.

intimē. extrā, without.

exterius. post, after.

postěrius.

postremo. sõprā, above.

súperius.

summē. infra, below.

inferius. cîtrā, on this side.

cîtěrius. ultrā, beyond.

ulterius.

ultimum. 125. After an adjective in the Comparative degree the thing which is made the standard of comparison is put(1.) In the Ablative

Nihil est virtute formosius, nihil pulchrius, nihil ama

bilius, Nothing is more beautiful, nothing more fair,

nothing more lovely than virtue. O matre pulchrā filia pulchrior, o daughter, fairer than

thy fair mother !-Hor. Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum, Silver is less

precious than gold, gold than virtues.-HOR. (2.) In the same case as the thing compared with it, the word quam than being put before it-

Tullus Hostilius ferocior etiam quam Romulus fuit,

Tullus Hostilius was even more high-spirited than

Romulus.
Romulus multitudini gratior fuit quam patribus, Romulus

was more popular with the commonalty than with the

patricians. Facilius est pauperi contemptum effugere, quam diviti

invidiam, It is easier for a poor man to escape contempt,

than for a rich man (to escape) envy.
NOTE.—Magis quam or plus quam = more than-

Oculis magis quam auribus credimus, We trust more to
the
eyes

than to the ears.
Saepe virtus plus proficit ad misericordiam quam hu-

militas, Courage is often more effectual than self-abasement to excite pity.

NUMERALS. 126. Numerals are Adjectives and Adverbs used in expressing numbers. They are divided into four classes :I. Cardinal, answering the question How many? as Quat

tuor, four. II. Ordinal, answering the question In what order ? as

Quartus, the fourth. III. Distributive, answering the question How many of each?

as Quaterni, four of each. IV. Adverbial, answering the question How often ? as Quater,

four times.

CARDINAL.

ORDINAL.

DISTRIBUTIVE.

ADVERBIAL.

1. ūnus, a, um
2. duo, ae, o
3. trēs, es, ia
4. quattuor
5. quinque
6. sex
7. septem
8. octo
9. nóvem
10. decem
11. unděcim
12. duodécim
13. trěděcim
14. quattuorděcim
15. quinděcim
16. sēděcim
17. septemděcim
18. duodēvīginti
19. undēvīginti
20. vīginti
21. unus et viginti
22. duo et viginti
28. duodetriginta
29. undetriginta
30. trigintā
40. quadrāgintā
50. quinquāgintā
60. sexāgintā
70. septuāgintā
80. octogintā
90. nonāgintā
99. undēcentum

primus, a, um.
secundus or alter
tertius
quartus
quintus
sextus
septimus
octāvus
nõnus
děcimus
unděcimus
duoděcimus'
tertius decimus
quartus decimus
quintus decimus
sextus decimus
septimus decimus
duodēvicensimus
undēvicensimus
vicensimus
unus et vicensimus
alter et vicensimus
duodetricensimus
undetricensimus
tricensimus
quadrāgensimus
quinquagensimus
sexagensimus
septuagensimus
octogensimus
nonagensimus
undecentensimus

singuli, ae, a
bini
terni or trini
quăterni
quini
sēni
septēni
octoni
novēni
dēni
undēni
duodēni
terni deni
quăterni deni
quini deni
sēni dēni
septēni deni
duodevicēni
undevicēni
vicēni
viceni singuli
viceni bini
duodetriceni
undetriceni
triceni
quadrāgēni
quinquageni
sexageni
septuageni
octogeni
nonageni
undecenteni

sēměl.
bis.
těr.
quátěr.
quinquiens.
sexiens.
septiens.
octiens.
noviens.
děciens.
unděciens.
duoděciens.
terděciens.
quattuorděciens.
quinděciens.
sēdēciens.
septiensděciens.
duodeviciens.
undēviciens.
viciens.
semel et viciens.
bis et viciens.
duodetriciens.
undetriciens.
triciens.
quadrāgiens.
quinquagiens.
sexagiens.
septuagiens.
octogiens.
nonagiens.
undecentiens.

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NOTE.—The forms in -ensimus and -ens are frequently written -esimus and -es, as vicesimus and vicies.

127. Unus, duo, and tres are declined thus :SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

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The plural is used with plural nouns which have a singular meaning, as unae litterae, una castra; and in the sense alone. PLURAL.

PLURAL. N. V. duo duae duo

N. Ac. V. tres

tria Gen. duorum duarum duorum Gen.

trium D. Ab. duobus duābus duobus D. Ab.

tribus Acc. duos duas duð

For duorum the contraction duum is not uncommon; the accusative has duo for duos in some places. Ambo, both, is declined like duo.

For the accusative tres, we often find tris.

128. The Cardinals from 4. to 100 are indeclinable.

In writing such a number as 24 in Latin, we may put quattuor et viginti, or viginti quattuor.

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Again, “ 234 years may be rendered “ducenti anni et triginta quattuor," or "ducenti triginta quattuor anni."

Mille is indeclinable, and may be used as an adjective, as “mille homines,” or with a genitive, as “mille hominum.” The plural is only used as a noun, and is declined thus :-millia, millium, millibus. It is often followed by a genitive, as tria millia hominum. For millia many mss. give milia.

129.

FRACTIONS.
One-half is expressed in Latin by dimidia pars.
One-third
Two-thirds

duae partes.
Three-fourths

tres partes. Three-fifths

tres quintae.

... tertia pars.

SPACE.

a

130. In describing measures of length, such as the length or height of a wall, and the breadth or depth of a ditch, the distance is expressed by the Genitive or Accusative, thus

Fossa viginti pedum,
Fossa viginti pedes lata,

a ditch twenty feet wide. Even after a comparative the accusative of distance is used — Flumen ab castris Caesaris non amplius millia passuum

aberat, The river was not more than a thousand paces from

, }

Caesar's camp.

Castra haud plus quinque millia passuum ab urbe locant,

They pitch their camp not more than five miles from the

city. Note 1.—When a Roman army encamped for the night, a ditch (fossa) was dug round the camp (castra); on the inner side of the ditch the earth was thrown into a mound (agger), on which they put a row of palisades (vallus), and the whole work was called an entrenchment (vallum).

NOTE 2.—The thousand paces (mille passuum) of Latin

about 5000

writers mean double steps, so that mille passuum English feet.

TIME.

131. When the Latins spoke of an action going on through the whole of a period of time, they put the words expressing the time in the Accusative

Romulus septem et triginta regnavit annos; Numa tres et

quadraginta, Romulus reigned thirty-seven years; Numa, forty-three. Triginta dies obsidio fuit, The blockade lasted thirty days.

132. The time at which an action is performed is put in the Ablative

Prima luce, At daybreak.
Horā sextā, At the sixth hour.
Abhinc annis quattuor est mortuus, He died four years ago.
Paucis post diebus, A few days after, ante and post are
Multis ante diebus, Many days before, ) here adverbs.
Non ita multis ante annis, Not very many years before.
Quingentensimo et quadragensimo anno ab urbe condita,

In the 540th year from the foundation of the city.
Sexcentesimo et altero anno post urbem conditam, In the

602d year after the foundation of the city. So also the ablatives hieme, aestate, die, nocte.

old ;

133. In describing the age of a person the genitive is used

Puer annorum fere novem, A boy about nine years or the accusative with natus, born

Annos sexaginta natus es, aut plus eo, ut conicio, You are sixty years old or more, I

guess. - -TER.

134. The time in which a work is done is expressed by the ablative

Quod Helvetii diebus viginti aegerrime confecerant, id

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