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22. The following list includes all the Verbs used in the illustrative sentences up to Sect. 66 :

First Conjugation. árāre, to plough.

secāre, to cut. děcorāre, to adorn.

servāre, to preserve. laudāre, to praise.

sónāre, to resound. narrāre, to relate.

spectāre, to behold. nătāre, to swim.

stāre, to stand. ornāre, to decorate.

vitāre, to avoid. părāre, to prepare.

věcāre, to call. portāre, to carry.

võlāre, to fly.

N.B.-Dăre, to give, has the ă short in its tenses, as dåbam, dăbo.'

Second Conjugation. dēlēre, to destroy.

praebēre, to furnish. docēre, to teach.

rīdēre, to laugh. fðvēre, to cherish.

sēdēre, to sit. håbēre, to have.

těnēre, to hold. iăcēre, to lie.

terrēre, alarm. iůbēre, order.

tìmēre, to fear. mănēre, to remain or await. vịrēre, to be green. pătēre, to be open.

vidēre, to see.

Third Conjugation. ågěre, to drive.

mittere, to send. cădere, to fall.

pětěre, to aim at, seek. căněre, to sing.

quaerere, to seek. carpěre, to pluck.

scrīběre, to write. discere, to learn.

sperněre, to despise. dūcere, to lead.

surgěre, to rise. fluěre, to flow.

trāděre, to deliver, hand over.

Fourth Conjugation. đpěrīre, to open.

mūnīre, to construct, to fortify. dormire, to sleep.

nūtrīre, to nourish. haurire, to drain.

věnīre, to come. lēnīre, to assuage.

vincīre, to bind.

DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS. 23. The relation in which a noun stands to another word in a sentence is usually expressed in English by placing before the noun one of the words which are therefore called Prepositions, such as of, to, for, by, with.

The relation in which a Noun stands to another word in a sentence is expressed in Latin by affixing particular terminations to the stem of the noun. The Noun is then said to be in a certain Case.

Prepositions are used in Latin to define more clearly the relations signified by the cases.

CASES. 24. The Latin Noun has six cases, which are called Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, Ablative.

NUMBERS.

25. Nouns have usually two numbers, Singular, referring to one person or thing, as porta, a gate ; Plural, referring to more than one, as portae, gates.

GENDERS. 26. Nouns in Latin are Masculine, Feminine, or Neuter (that is, of neither Gender). A Noun which may be Masculine or Feminine is called Common.

N.B.- In the lists of nouns that follow, Masculine Nouns have the first letter a capital, as Rex, king. Feminine Nouns have the first letter small, as regina, queen. Neuter Nouns are printed in italics, as regnum, a kingdom.

DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS.

27. Rules of declension are rules for the formation of cases in particular nouns. There are two chief classes of Latin Nouns :

I. Nouns whose stems end in A or 0.

II. Nouns whose stems end in I, a consonant, or U. For the few Nouns with stems in E, see Section 66.

28.

FIRST CLASS OF NOUNS.

STEMS IN A.

Declension of porta, gate.

PLURAL.
SINGULAR.
Nom. portă.

Nom. portae.
Gen. portae.

Gen. portĀrum.
Dat. portae.

Dat. portis.
Acc. portam.

Acc. portās.
Voc. portă.

Voc. portae.
Abl. portā.

Abl. portis.

a

Note 1.-The final a is short in all Noun cases except the ablative of the A declension.

NOTE 2.—The stem of a Noun is always seen in the Genitive Plural. The last letter of the stem is called the Character of

It is indicated in the type-forms of the Declensions by a capital, as port Arum.

the noun.

29. Nouns of the A declension are mostly Feminine.

In the following list of Feminine Nouns of this declension in common use, the English meanings are given without the words a, an, or the, because, there being no Article in Latin, ala may

a wing" or “ the wing,” according to the context of the sentence.

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FEMININE NOUNS OF THE A DECLENSION.

forma, shape. fossa, ditch. fuga, flight. gemma, jewel. gloria, fame. gutta, drop.

hasta, spear.

āla, wing.
ancilla, handmaid.
aqua, water.
aquila, eagle.
āra, altar.
aura, breeze.
barba, beard.
causa, cause.
cēna, dinner.
coma, hair.
corona, garland.
cūra, care.
dextra, right-hand.
domina, mistress.
ěděra, ivy.
ěpistŭla, letter.
fābŭla, story.
fāma, rumour.
fēmina, woman.
fèra, wild-beast.
flamma, flame.

iānua, door.
insula, island.
īra, anger.
iustitia, justice.
lāna, wool.
lingua, tongue.
lūna, moon.
mensa, table.
mora, delay.
mūsa, muse.
nātūra, nature,
nympha, nymph.
opěra, labour.
āra, coast.

pěcūnia, money,
poena, penalty.
puella, girl.
rāna, frog.
rēgīna, queen,
rīpa, bank.
rosa, rose,
rota, wheel.
săgitta, arrow.
silva, wood.
sĩnistra, left-hand.
stella, star.
taeda, torch.
terra, earth.
túba, trumpet.
turba, crowd.
unda, wave.
umbra, shade,
vacca, cow.
via, way.
vīta, life.

To this declension belong many names of countries, as Europa, Africa, Asia, Italia, Graecia, Britannia, Sicilia ; and cities, as Roma, Sparta, Căpủa. The following are in the plural only :dīvịtiae, riches.

mīnae, threats. håbēnae, reins.

nūgae, trifles. insidiae, ambush.

těněbrae, darkness. Also names of some cities, as Athenae, Thebae, Syracusae.

dea, goddess, and filia, daughter, have the dative and ablative plural deābus and filiābus. The following have a special meaning in the plural : SINGULAR.

PLURAL. copia, plenty.

copiae, troops, forces, slores. fortūna, fortune.

fortunae, property. grātia, favour.

gratiae, thanks. līttera, a letter of the alphabet. litterae, an epistle, literature.

MASCULINE NOUNS WITH A-STEMS.

30. Masculine nouns of this declension in common use are such as denote the occupations of men, as

Agricola, husbandman, Incola, inhabitant,
Aurīga, charioteer,

Nauta, sailor,
Collēga, colleague,

Poēta, poet,
Convīva, guest,

Scrība, secretary,
and many names of men, as Cinna, Iugurtha, Murena, Sulla.
They are declined like porta, thus :-
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
Nom. Scrība.

Nom. Scribae.
Gen. Scribae.

Gen. Scribārum.
Dat. Scribae.

Dat. Scribīs.
Acc. Scribam.

Acc. Scribās.
Voc. Scriba.

Voc. Scribae.
Abl. Scribā.

Abl. Scribīs.

STEMS IN O.

31. This declension contains nouns ending in -ús, chiefly

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