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XIX. Caesar's Interview with Divitiacus.

14. Certissimae res, most undoubted facts; referring to the facts mentioned in the subsequent clauses - quod per ... quod obsides, etc. See p. 5, lines 20-23.- Quod ... transduxisset. This clause is in apposition with res, but also involves a reason in the mind of Caesar at the time of the event. Hence the Subjunctive. G. 520, II. A reason assigned by Caesar as historian would require the Indicative. G. 520, I. Transduxisset, curasset, and fecisset are all in the same construction. The subject is Dumnorix.

15. Inter eos, between them; i. c., between the Helvetii and the Sequani. - Dandos. Supply esse.

16. Injussu suo et civitatis, without his (Caesar's) orders and those of the state (i. e., of the Aedui).

17. Inscientibus ipsis, without their knowledge; lit., they themselves not knowing. Ipsis refers to Caesar and the Aedui, — the latter implied in civitatis. - A magistratu Aeduorum; i. e., by Liscus, the vergobretus or chief magistrate.

18. Satis causae, a sufficient reason; lit., enough of cause. G. 396, III. 2. · Quare animadverteret, why he should either himself punish him; lit., by which he should either himself direct his attention to (against) him, i. e., proceed against him according to law. This is a relative clause of Result, introduced by the relative particle quare:-a sufficient reason to induce him, &c. ; i. e., to produce this result. G. 500, 1.

20. His rebus, to these things; i. e., these reasons for punishing Dumnorix. G. 385. Unum, one consideration, referring to quod ... verebatur; i. e., though there were several reasons for punishing Dumnorix, there was yet one objection to this course.

21. Studium, voluntatem, loyalty, affection.


23. Ne offenderet; G. 492, 4, 1). — Ejus refers to Dumnorix.

24. Verebatur. Observe the force of the Imperfect; was fearing, was fearful.

25. Conaretur; G. 523, II. —Quotidianis... remotis, having dismissed his ordinary (lit., daily) interpreters. G. 431, 2.


27. Principem, a leading man. — Cui . . . fidem habebat, in whom he was wont to place the highest confidence on all subjects; lit., to whom he was having the highest confidence of all things. For the force of the genitive in rerum, see G. 393, 1.

29. Simul; construe with et; he at once reminds him ... and shows. -Ipso, i. e., Divitiacus.- Sine ejus, etc., without offence to his feelings, &c. Ejus refers to Divitiacus, ipse to Caesar, and civitatem to the Aedui. 32. Statuat, jubeat; G. 492, 2.

XX. Caesar pardons Dumnorix.

35. Quid gravius, anything too severe; i. e., too severe a sentence. 36. Scire se. Here the verb of saying, on which the Infinitive depends, is implied in obsecrare. G. 530, 1.-Nec quemquam, and that no one; lit., nor any one. G. 587, I. 2. - Ex eo, from him.

37. Doloris; G. 396, III. 2. —Propterea quod; construe with crevisset. Ipse refers to Divitiacus. Plurimum. Supply posset, expressed with minimum.

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38. Domi, at home; i. e., among his own people. G. 424, 2. — Ille refers to Dumnorix. Supply et before ille.



1. Se refers to Divitiacus. -Quibus opibus ac nervis uteretur, 11 and this (lit., which) influence and power he (Dumnorix) was using, referring to the influence and power implied in per se crevisset. G. 453. Nervis (lit., nerves) is used figuratively for strength, power.

3. Suam refers to Divitiacus. - Existimatione vulgi, by the opinion of the common people; i. e., by the fact that they would hold him responsible, as explained in the next sentence.

4. Quod si; G. 453, 6.

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6. Eum locum. apud eum, such a place in his friendship; lit., that place of friendship with him ; i. e., with Caesar. — Existimaturum, factum. Supply esse. - Voluntate; Abl. of Cause.

7. Futurum uti averterentur; G. 495, 2; 544.

10. Faciat; G. 493, 2. —Tanti; G. 402, 1.-Ejus refers to Divitiacus, and se to Caesar.

11. Rei publicae injuriam, the injury to the state.

15. Omnes suspiciones, all grounds for suspicion. - Divitiaco fratri, for the sake of his brother Divitiacus; lit., to, or for, his brother.

16. Dumnorigi custodes ponit. Caesar watched the movements of Dumnorix, and finally put him to death. See p. 79.-Ut possit; Subj. of Purpose. G. 489.

17. Agat, loquatur; G. 525.

XXI. Caesar prepares to attack the Helvetii.

18. Certior factus, etc., having been informed (lit., made more certain) that the enemy had encamped. Certior fio, like doceor, admits an Infinitive. G. 374, 4.

19. Millia passuum; G. 378.

20. Esset; G. 525.-Qualis in circuitu, etc., what the ascent by a circuitous route; lit., in a circuit.

21. Qui... misit, he sent men to ascertain; lit., who should ascertain.


11 Supply eos as the antecedent of qui and the object of misit. For the Mood in cognoscerent, see G. 500. The object is the clause qualis... ascensus. - Facilem esse. Supply ascensum.


22. De tertia vigilia. See note, p. 6, line 27. - Legatum pro praetore, his lieutenant with praetorian power. Praetor is here used in the sense of commander-in-chief. Caesar is the praetor. Legatus pro praetore is an honorary title applicable to the general or lieutenant who is second in command, and accordingly acts as commander-in-chief (pro praetore) in the absence of that officer.

23. Cum iis ducibus, with those persons, as guides. Ducibus, in appo

sition with iis.

24. Quid sui consilii sit, what his plan is; lit., what is of his plan. Consilii is a Predicate Genitive with sit, and not a Partitive Genitive depending upon quid. G. 401.

25. Quo; Abl. of Means.

27. Rei militaris; G. 399, 2, 2).

28. Sullae; Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the famous Roman dictator, and rival of Marius.

29. Crassi; Marcus Licinius Crassus, the distinguished commander in the Servile War, who defeated and slew Spartacus, 71 B. C. For the omission of exercitu before Marci Crassi, see G. 397, 1, 1).

XXII. The Mistake of Considius defeats Caesar's


30. Prima luce, at daybreak; lit., at the first light. G. 441, 6.Summus mons, the summit of the mountain.

31. Ipse; i. e., Caesar.

33. Abesset, cognitus esset; construe with quum. G. 518, II. 34. Equo admisso, at full speed. Admittere, in such expressions, means to give loose reins. - Accurrit, dicit. Observe the omission of the conjunction, implying haste. So, also, between subducit and instruit, below.

35. Voluerit; G. 531.-A Gallicis insignibus, from the Gallic standards. But insignia sometimes refers to the decorations of the armor. 37. Subducit, withdraws. Here sub gives to the verb the idea of a quiet, noiseless movement. - Aciem. See Syn. L. C. 178. 38. Erat praeceptum. The subject is the clause ne ... committeret, which also expresses purpose. G. 492.

1. Ipsius copiae, his own (Caesar's) forces. - Visae essent. In the Direct Discourse the Fut. Perfect would be used: hence, the Pluperf. Subj. here. G. 532, 4.

4. Multo die, late in the day; though probably only relatively so,


implyg that much time had been lost since daybreak (prima luce) when 12 they might have surprised the enemy.

6. Quod ...renuntiavisse, had reported to him what he had not seen, as if seen; lit., for seen. Supply id as the antecedent of quod, and as the object of renuntiavisse.

7. Quo consuerat intervallo intervallo quo consuerat, at the usu al distance; i. e., from the enemy; lit., with the interval with which he was wont. The usual distance was about five miles. See p. 8, lines 23-25.

XXIII.-XXVII. Defeat of the Helvetii.

9. Diei; G. 411, 2.-Supererat quum oporteret, remained before it would be necessary; lit., when it would be necessary.

10. Metiri. See note, p. 8, line 35.

12. Rei... existimavit, he thought that he ought to provide supplies. With prospiciendum supply esse. G. 301, 386, 2).

14. Avertit ac contendit. These two verbs, taken together, show what Caesar did, as the result of the opinion expressed in prospiciendum existimavit. This connection may be shown, in rendering, by supplying and accordingly. Thus: He thought that he ought, &c., and accordingly turned aside from the Helvetii. - Bibracte; G. 379.- Fugitivos, deserters; i. e., from the Gallic cavalry in Caesar's service.

15. Decurionis. The decurio was the commander of a decuria, a small force of cavalry, originally ten in number. The cavalry was divided into companies or alae, the alae into turmae, and these again into decuriae.

16. Seu quod . . . existimarent... sive eo quod ... confiderent, either because they thought, &c., or because (lit., for this reason, because) they trusted. For the Subjunctive, see G. 520, II.

17. Eo magis quod, the more because; lit., more because of this, viz., that or because; explained by the following clause, which gives a special reason for the opinion of the Helvetii.-Superioribus ... occupatis, though they (the Romans) had taken possession of the higher grounds, referring to summus mons. See p. 11, line 30; also G. 431, 2.

19. Re; G. 425. - Posse. Supply eos, referring to the Romans. 20. Nostros, our men. G. 441.- A novissimo agmine, on the rear; lit., from the newest (last) line. See note on ab Sequanis, p. 1, line 17. 22. Id animum; G. 374, 6. — Animum advertit. form animadvertit, see p. 28, line 14.

23. Sustineret; Subj. of Purpose. G. 500.

24. In colle medio, midway up the hill. G. 441, 6.

For the usual

25. Triplicem aciem, a triple line of battle; i. c., the army was arranged in three lines. Each legion consisted of ten cohorts, which, in the


12 triplex acies, were arranged with intervals between them, as indicated in the following diagram:

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Observe that four cohorts form the first or front line, three the second, and three the third, and that the cohorts in the second line are directly behind the intervals in the first. Observe also that the cohorts are numbered from the right of the legion to the left, the first cohort occupying the right of the front line, and the tenth the left of the third line. But to an observer standing in front of the legion, this order would of course be reversed.

26. In summo jugo, on the very summit. Jugum, in distinction from mons, a mountain or hill, often denotes the summit of a hill, or the ridge of a range of hills.

27. Collocari, compleri; construe with jussit.

32. Phalange facta. The Macedonian phalanx, so celebrated in ancient warfare, was doubtless unknown to the Gauls. The Helvetic phalanx, here referred to, was probably similar to the German, which consisted simply of a body of soldiers in close array, under the cover of their shields close locked over their heads.

33. Primam aciem, first line; i. e., to an approaching enemy; hence, the lowest or front line.

34. Suo. Supply equo remoto from remotis equis, in the next line. G. 431. — Omnium, of all; i. e., of all the officers and other persons of distinction, not, of course, of the cavalry.

37. Pilis, javelins, of which each soldier had two. This weapon consisted of a shaft of wood with a barbed head of iron, and was five or six feet in length.

38. Ea refers to phalangem.- Gladiis destrictis, with drawn swords; Abl. of Means. - Eos refers to hostium.

1. Magno erat impedimento, it was a great hinderance; lit.. for a great hinderance. G. 390. The subject of erat is the clause quod pluribus, etc.-Pluribus... colligatis. A single javelin, penetrating several shields which overlapped each other, sometimes fastened them together by the bending of the iron point. The scutum is properly a large, oblong shield, four feet in length and two and one half in width.

3. Evellere. Supply ea, as the object, referring to pilorum. -Sinistra impedita. The buckler was fastened to the left arm.

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