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4. Multi ut praeoptarent, so that many preferred. Observe the 13 emphatic position of multi. G. 594, I.; 602, III. 1.

5. Manu; G. 425, 2, 2). - Nudo corpore, with the body unprotected; i. e., without a shield.

7. Mons suberat, etc., there was a mountain near by, about a mile off.

— Eo, thither; i. e., to the mountain.

8. Capto monte, when the mountain had been gained; i. e., by the enemy.

9. Boii et Tulingi. The following plan gives the position of the two armies.







A. Helvetian army.

BC D. Caesar's four veteran legions, in three lines, triplex acies.

E. Two new legions with auxiliaries.

F. Boii and Tulingi.

Observe that D, which in the first position forms the third line of Caesar's army, is, in the second position, in front of the Boii and Tulingi, and that E is not mentioned in the second position.





10. Novissimis praesidio erant, guarded the rear; lit., were for a defence to the rear, or the newest (last). G. 390.

11. Ex itinere, on the march. - Latere aperto, on the exposed flank. G. 422. This expression generally denotes the right side, because not protected with the shield, but is often used of either flank of the army when particularly exposed.

14. Conversa... intulerunt, having changed their front, advanced in two divisions; lit., advanced their standards turned about. The words conversa signa apply only to the third line (tertia acies), which faced about to meet the Boii and Tulingi, who had fallen upon the Roman flank. The first and second lines pressed forward against the Helvetii, who had been dislodged, but were attempting to renew the battle. See plan on the preceding page.

15. Acies; in apposition with Romani. G. 363, 4. — Tertia; supply acies. Victis refers to the Helvetii, and venientes to the Boii and the Tulingi.

17. Ancipiti proelio, in a double battle; so called because fought on two different fronts. Proelio; Abl. of Manner. G. 414, 3.- Pugnatum est, they fought; lit., it was fought. G. 301.

19. Alteri - alteri, one party (i. e., the Helvetii), the other party (i. c., the Boii and the Tulingi.)

21. Toto proelio; G. 426. Quum pugnatum sit, though they fought. G. 515, I. — Hora septima, one o'clock; lit., the seventh hour. Remember that the Roman hours were numbered from sunrise. G. 711.

22. Aversum hostem, a retreating enemy; lit., an enemy turned away; i. c., in flight. - Ad multam noctem, far into the night. See note on multo die, p. 12, line 4.


23. Ad, near, towards.

24. In nostros venientes, against our men who were advancing; lit., ours advancing.

26. Mataras ac tragulas, lances and javelins. The matara is a heavy pike or lance, while tragula is a light javelin.

27. Quum pugnatum; G. 518, II. — Impedimentis; G. 419, I. 29. E filiis; G. 398, 4, 2).

31. Nullam partem; G. 378. This seems to imply that they fled day and night.

32. Quum potuissent; Subj. of Cause. They escaped because the Romans could not pursue them.

33. Propter sepulturam, for the burial. The Romans were scrupulous in the observance of funeral rites, because they believed that the souls of the unburied dead were compelled to wander a hundred years on the banks of the Styx, before they could find rest. Nostri, our men. G. 441. 34. Triduum; G. 378. — Lingonas; a Greek form. G. 68.


36. Qui si javissent, if they should aid. G. 453; 532, 4.-Se... 13 habiturum; supply esse; that he would regard them as in the same situation as the Helvetii. Se habiturum depends upon the verb implied in litteras... misit. G. 530, 1. Supply eos as the object of habiturum. Helvetios is the object of haberet, to be supplied.

3. Ad pedes, at his feet; i. e., at the feet of Caesar.

4. Eos, them; i. e., the Helvetii.

5. Essent; G. 531.-Jussisset. The subject is Caesar.

6. Eo, thither, to that place; i. e., where the Helvetii were awaiting him. 7. Perfugissent; G. 501, I. — Ea, these; lit., these things. The use of the neuter, referring to obsides and servos, shows that they were here regarded as the spoils of victory, rather than as men.

8. Circiter; adverb, modifying sex.

9. Perterriti agrees with millia by a construction according to sense. G. 438, 6.

10. Ne... afficerentur depends upon timore. G. 492, 4; 493, 3.

11. Quod ... existimarent; G. 520, II.

12. Fugam; subject of posse. —Aut omnino ignorari, or be entirely unknown.

13. Prima nocte, in the early part of the night. G. 441, 6.

XXVIII. The Helvetii return to their own Country.

15. Resciit; G. 471, 4. This word means to ascertain something which has been concealed or is unexpected. - Quorum refers to his for its antecedent. His depends upon imperavit. G. 385. 16. Si sibi... vellent, if they wished to be blameless in his sight; lit., to him. G. 389. In the Direct Discourse the Indicative would be used in the condition. G. 508, 2.

17. Reductos. Supply eos, referring to those who had fled. - In hostium ... habuit, he treated them as enemies; lit., had them in the number of enemies. The punishment in such cases was usually slavery

or death.

21. Quo... tolerarent; G. 501, 1.

22. Ut copiam facerent, to furnish a supply; lit., that they should make an abundance. G. 492, 2.

23. Ipsos, them, emphatic, in distinction from Allobrogibus, above.Quos incenderant. The Indicative is used because Caesar has in mind the particular towns mentioned on p. 3, lines 20-23. The Subjunctive would make the expression general-any towns which they had burned.

24. Ea maxime ratione, principally for this reason, explained by quod noluit, etc.

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28. Boios, etc. Construe, Concessit Aeduis petentibus ut (Aedui) collocarent Boios in finibus suis, quod (Boii) erant cogniti egregia virtute, he granted the request of the Aedui that; lit., granted to the Aedui asking that. Ut collocarent is the object both of concessit and of petentibus.· Quod ... erant cogniti, because they were known to be men of remarkable valor. This is the reason for the request of the Aedui.

30. Quibus, to these; i. e., to the Boii. -Illi refers to the Aedui. 31. Atque ipsi erant, as they enjoyed; lit., and (as) they themselves were. G. 587, I. 2.

XXIX. Comparative Number of the Helvetii before

and after the War.

33. Tabulae, tablets or lists. The tablets upon which the Romans wrote were generally of wood covered with wax.

34. Litteris Graecis confectae, written in Greek characters, though not necessarily in the Greek language. These characters were undoubtedly derived from the Greek colony at Marseilles, Southern Gaul.

35. Ratio qui numerus, an account showing what number. Qui... exissent, etc., is in apposition with ratio. - Domo; G. 424, 2.

36. Possent; G. 500.

37. Pueri, etc. Supply perscripti erant ; were enumerated.- Quarum ... summa, the sum of all these classes or items; lit., things.

38. Capitum Helvetiorum, of the Helvetii; lit., of heads of the Helvetii. This use of capita is common in the Roman census. 3. Qui refers to millia as its antecedent. G. 445, 5. verbial force, about.


4. Fuerunt agrees with the Predicate noun millia. G. 462.

5. Censu habito, when an actual enumeration had been made; lit., had. Census is here used in this general sense. The same term, when applied to the Romans, often meant much more than this, including not only the numbering of the citizens, but also the valuation of property and a general review of the condition of the state. At Rome such a census was taken every five years.

Ad has an ad

.XXX. - XXXII. Complaints against Ariovistus.

7. Bello Helvetiorum, the war with the Helvetii; lit., of the Helvetii. -Galliae. Gallia is here used in its limited sense- - Celtic Gaul. See p. 1.

8. Gratulatum; G. 569,

9. Intelligere sese; G. 530, 1.—Helvetiorum injuriis, the wrongs done by the Helvetii to the Roman people. Helvetiorum is the Subjective Genitive, and populi the Objective. G. 396, I. and II.; 397, 2.




10. Ab his, from these; i. e., the Helvetii.-Poenas, satisfaction. - 15 Repetisset. The subject is a pronoun referring to Caesar.

11. Ex usu, to the advantage of; lit., from use, very much like the English of use.

12. Eo consilio, with this design, viz., uti . . . potirentur... haberent. -Florentissimis rebus; Abl. Absol. G. 431.

14. Imperio; G. 419, I.

15. Ex magna copia, from the great abundance; i. e., of places, which they would have in all Gaul.- Quem ... opportunissimum ; G. 373, 3.

16. Judicassent; G. 532, 4.

17. Sibi; construe with liceret.

18. In diem certam, for a certain day.

19. Voluntate; G. 414, 2.-Sese habere; G. 530, 1.

20. Ex communi consensu, with the common consent; i. e., of their people; lit., from the common consent, implying that the action is to proceed from this, or grow out of it. In such cases the preposition may be rendered with, or in accordance with.- Vellent; G. 531.

21. Concilio; G. 384.- Jurejurando; supply in eo concilio; i. e., when the council met they bound themselves, &c. G. 125, 1.- Ne quis ... nisi quibus, etc., that no one except those to whom this duty should be intrusted by the common counsel, should communicate their doings; i. e., to Caesar. Supply ii as the antecedent of quibus.

26. Secreto in occulto, alone, in secret. Secreto means simply without witnesses, alone; but in occulto means much more, in a secret place, in secret, implying that the whole interview is to be a profound secret.

27. Caesari ad pedes, at the feet of Caesar; lit., to Caesar at the feet. Observe the difference of idiom. Caesari is the Indirect Object of projecerunt. G. 398, 5.

28. Se contendere; G. 530, 1.-Id, this, viz., ne ea . . . enuntiarentur, which is in apposition with it and at the same time expresses Purpose. G. 492. In this speech, as indeed in all Indirect Discourse, the pupil should observe the use of Moods-the Infinitive in Principal clauses, unless Interrogative or Imperative, and the Subjunctive in Subordinate clauses. G. 530, 531. But he should remember that the Subjunctive in a Subordinate clause, which would require that mood in the Direct Discourse, should not be referred to G. 531, but to the Rule which would govern it in the Direct Discourse. Thus enuntiarentur and impetrarent are both Subjunctives of Purpose, and must therefore be referred to G. 492, not 531.

32. Galliae totius. Celtic Gaul is meant.

33. Factiones duas, two parties.

34. Hi, these; i. e., the Aedui with their party on the one hand, and

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