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proximo. See p. 4, where Caesar tells us that the Allobroges had been recently subdued.

1. Ipsos, they; i. c., the Aedui.

4. Habere. Supply eum as object, referring to exercitum.

5. Qui nisi decedat, if he would not depart. G. 453.

7. Quod si, but if. G. 453, 6.

There was,

8. Gratum, a favor; lit., an agreeable thing. G. 441. doubtless, some truth in this statement of Ariovistus. Caesar had many, bitter personal enemies at Rome. — Id, this fact.

9. Compertum habere, had ascertained. Compertum agrees with id. G. 388, 1, 2).

11. Decessisset. Decedo means to withdraw entirely.

13. Sine ullo ejus labore, without any effort on his (Caesar's) part. 16. Quare non posset, showing why he could not. In translating, it is best to supply some word, as showing, before why (quare).

17. Uti desereret; Result and Object. G. 495.

19. Ariovisti; Predicate Genitive with esse. G. 401, 403.-SuperaThis was in the year 121 B. C.

tos esse.

20. Quibus ignovisset. The Romans were said to pardon a conquered people when they allowed them to retain their own government and laws.

21. In provinciam redegisset. The Romans were said to reduce a conquered country to a province when they brought it under Roman government.

22. Quod si ... oporteret, but if the most ancient time (priority of time) should ever be regarded. In this respect the Romans had the advantage by about sixty years.

25. Quam... voluisset, since the senate had decreed (wished) that it (quam), &c.

28. Tumulum. Construction? G. 437, 1.

30. Facit, imperavit. Observe the change from the Historical Present to the Historical Perfect- -a change by no means uncommon.

31. Ne quod. Why not ne quid? G. 188, 190.

32. Legionis; Objective Genitive. G. 393, 1; 396, II.

33. Committendum... ut dici posset, he did not think that he ought to permit it to be said; lit., that it could be said. With committendum, which is impersonal, supply esse sibi.

34. Eos, that they; i. e., the enemy. - Per fidem, through plighted faith; i. e., by the plighted word of Caesar, who had invited them to this interview.

36. Qua arrogantia usus, with what arrogance; lit., using what arrogance. G. 419, I.—Omni... interdixisset, had forbidden the Romans all Gaul.


38. Fecissent; Subj. in an Indirect Question. - Ut, how. - Multo; 25 Ablative of Difference; G. 418.

XLVII.-L. Ariovistus avoids a general Engagement.

3. Biduo; G. 427. Post is used adverbially.


4. Velle; G. 530, 1.-Coeptae essent. Why not coepissent? G. 297, 1.

5. Uti constitueret; Subj. of Purpose, dependent upon legatos mittit, involving the idea of asking.

8. Diei. Construction? G. 411, 2.

9. Quin... conjicerent, from hurling. G. 498, 1.

12. Gaium Valerium Procillum; mentioned on p. 10, line 26.

13. Humanitate, culture. G. 428.

14. Civitate donatus erat. This was done by C. Valerius Flaccus, when he was governor of Gaul, 83 B. C.

16. Qua multa. Qua refers to linguae, and multa agrees with qua though it may be rendered adverbially — much, or freely.

17. In eo peccandi causa, a reason (excuse) for doing wrong in his case; i. e., the Germans would be less likely to injure him than some others. - Quod esset; Caesar's reason at the time, not assigned by him as narrator. Hence the Subj. G. 520, II.

21. Exercitu praesente; G. 431.

22. Quid; G. 380, 2.- Venirent; G. 530, II.-Conantes agrees with eos, to be supplied.

25. Sub monte, at the foot of the mountain, probably the Vosges. 28. Uti intercluderet. This clause is in apposition with consilio, and at the same time expresses the purpose of transduxit and fecit. It therefore expresses mixed purpose. G. 492.- Frumento; G. 425, 2, 2).

32. Ei... deesset, he might not lack the opportunity; lit., the power might not be wanting to him. G. 386, 2. His diebus; G. 378, 1.

34. Genus hoc erat pugnae, the following was the kind of battle. 35. Totidem numero pedites, the same number of infantry. Numero; Abl. of Specification. G. 429.

36. Quos ex... delegerant, whom they (the cavalry) had individually selected, one for each, from the whole multitude.—Copia = multitudine. 38. His, hos, hi refer to pedites.

1. Si quid erat durius, if there was anything unusually difficult. G. 27 444, 1.- Concurrebant, ran to their support.—Si qui; for the more usual si quis.

2. Si quo erat prodeundum, if it was necessary to advance to any place.



4. Ut jubis... adaequarent, that, supported by the manes of the horses, they equalled their speed.

6. Eum, that he; i. e., Ariovistus.

7. Ultra eum locum. The student will bear in mind the recent movements of the two armies. At the beginning of Chapter XLVIII. they were within six miles of cach other. Ariovistus then passed the camp of Caesar, and took up a position in his rear. Caesar now retraces his steps, and secures a position for a second camp, to prevent the enemy from cutting off his supplies.

9. Castris idoneum; G. 391, 1. — Acie triplici. See note on triplicem aciem, p. 12, line 25.

13. Hominum millia expedita = hominum millia expeditorum. Circiter numero sedecim, about sixteen in number. G. 429.

14. Quae copiae perterrerent, that these (lit., which) forces might terrify. G. 500.

18. Castra majora. Thus Caesar had two camps, castra majora with four legions, and castra minora with two.

20. Die; G. 426.—Instituto suo, in accordance with his custom. 25. Quae oppugnaret, to attack; lit., which should attack. G. 500. 29. Quam ob rem ... decertaret, why Ariovistus did not offer a general engagement. G. 525.

31. Ut declararent; G. 495, 2, 1). - Matres familiae. Many German matrons were supposed to be possessed of prophetic power.- Sortibus. The Germans made frequent use of lots in divining the future. 32. Ex usu esset, it would be of advantage (use). 33. Non esse fas, that it was not right. See Syn. L. C. 405.

LI. LIV. Caesar defeats the Germans, places his Army in Winter Quarters, and returns to Cisalpine Gaul.

35. Praesidio castris. Construction? G. 390, II.

36. Alarios, allied troops, called alarii, because originally they were stationed on the wings (alae) of the legion.

1. Ad speciem, for show; i. e., to impress the enemy by a show of


3. Castris; G. 434, 1.


4. Generatimque . Harudes, etc., and stationed by tribes (generatim) and at equal intervals the Harudes, &c.

6. Rhedis et carris, with carriages and wagons. G. 384, II. 1.

7. Ne qua; G. 190, 2.- Eoin iis; i. e., in the carriages and wagons. 8. Proficiscentes; supply milites.

9. Se, them; i. e., the women.

11. Singulos legatos et quaestorem. Caesar appointed a lieutenant for each legion, and one quaestor for the whole force. The quaestor was intrusted with the care of the public money.


13. A dextro cornu, on the right wing; Latin idiom, from the right wing, as the action proceeded from that quarter.

14. Ita... itaque (= et ita). Construe the first ita with acriter, and the second with repente celeriterque.

16. Pila; object of conjiciendi, which depends upon spatium, time, opportunity.

19. Phalange facta. See note on phalange, p. 12, line 32.

20. Complures nostri milites, many of our soldiers; lit., many our soldiers.Qui ... insilirent; G. 501, I.

22. A sinistro cornu, on their left wing; i. e., on the left wing of the Germans.

24. Publius Crassus; the son of Marcus Licinius Crassus, who was triumvir with Caesar and Pompey.

25. Equitatui; G. 386. —Quod expeditior erat, because he was more disengaged.

27. Aciem nostris subsidio; G. 390, II.

30. Millia; G. 378. Quinquaginta. Some editions have quinque. 31. Viribus. Case? G. 419, II.

32. Lintribus inventis, by means of boats which chanced to be at hand; lit., by boats found.—Inventis, repererunt. Invenio means to find without seeking, to meet with accidentally, while reperio means to find by seeking, to obtain by effort. This sentence is a good illustration of the use of these two synonymes.

34. Ea, with this; i. e., with the skiff. G. 414.-Equitatu. Why not cum equitatu? G. 414, 7.

35. Duae uxores. Among the ancient Germans polygamy seems to have been confined to the chieftains.

36. Sueba natione, a Suebian by nation. G. 429.

37. Duxerat, had married. Supply in matrimonium.

38. Duae filiae... capta est, their two daughters were, the one slain, the other captured. Filiae is in apposition with altera, altera.

1. Gaius Valerius Procillus. See p. 26, line 12.

2. Quum traheretur; G. 518, II. —Trinis catenis vinctus, bound with triple chains.

3. In ipsum. . . incidit, falls into the hands of Caesar himself.

4. Quae res, this thing; i. e., the rescue of his faithful friend Procillus.-Victoria; G. 417, 1.

5. Provinciae; G. 396, III.

7. Ejus calamitate, by his death.




9. Se praesente; construe with consultum.-Consultum (esse); impersonal, that it had been consulted; i. e., that they (the enemy) had consulted.

12. Marcus Mettius. See p. 26, line 18.

14. Domum; G. 379, 3, 1).

15. Rhenum. Construction? G. 391, 2, 2).

17. Duobus bellis; i. e., the war with the Helvetii and that with Ariovistus.

18. In hiberna in Sequanos, into winter quarters among the Sequani. Here the Latin idiom requires in Sequanos, not in Sequanis, to designate the place into which the army was led.

The Romans paid great attention to the winter quarters of their armies. They not only fortified them very strongly, but also furnished them with many accommodations for the convenience and comfort of the soldiers.

19. Citeriorem Galliam; also called Gallia Cisalpina, consisting of Gaul south of the Alps.

20. Ad conventus agendos, to hold the assizes or courts. The Roman governors of provinces usually employed their time in winter in the civil duties of their office. They held courts, corrected abuses, levied taxes, and exercised a controlling influence over public affairs.






I. The Belgae combine against Caesar.


1. Quum esset; G. 518, 1.-In hibernis. These words seem to imply that Caesar had, at least, a small force with him in Cisalpine Gaul, although his main army was in winter quarters among the Sequani. - Ita demonstravimus. See p. 29, line 19.

3. Litterisque... fiebat, and he was informed by the letters of Labiênus. Labienus, it will be remembered, had been left in charge of the winter quarters. See p. 29, line 19.

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