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4. Quam, for quos, attracted to agree with the predicate noun partem. 30 G. 445, 4. — Tertiam partem, one of the three parts, not strictly a third part. Dixeramus. See p. 1, line 2. The Perfect tense might have been used, but the Pluperfect is more exact, showing that this act was completed at the time of the past events just mentioned.

7. Omni Gallia; not all Gaul in its most comprehensive sense, but all Celtic Gaul.

8. Partim qui... partim qui, some of whom... others of whom ; lit., who partly.

9. Ita moleste ferebant, so they were annoyed; lit., bore it ill. 12. Novis imperiis, revolution; lit., new governments. G. 385. — Ab nonnullis etiam; supply sollicitarentur, from line 8 above.

15. Eam rem consequi, to accomplish this (thing); i. e., to obtain power in this way. -Imperio nostro, under our rule. This involves both time and cause, and may therefore be referred either to G. 414 or 426. Some grammarians explain it as the Ablative Absolute, which also expresses time and cause. G. 431.

II., III. The Remi surrender to Caesar.

16. Duas legiones, two legions, the thirteenth and the fourteenth. 17. Inita aestate, in the beginning of summer. G. 431, 2, (2).

18. Qui deduceret, to lead. G. 500.—Quintum Pedium; the son of Caesar's eldest sister, Julia.

19. Quum primum, as soon as.-Inciperet. Why Subjunctive? G. 518, II.

21. Belgis; G. 391, 1. — Uti . . . faciant; in apposition with negotium. The clause expresses mixed purpose. G. 492.

22. Gerantur; G. 527.

25. Quin proficisceretur; G. 498, 3.

28. Eo; i. e., ad fines Belgarum. -Celerius omni opinione, sooner than any one expected. G. 417, 6.

29. Proximi ex Belgis, the nearest of the Belgae. G. 398, 4.Galliae, to Gaul; i. e., Celtic Gaul.

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1. Se suaque omnia; object of permittere. The subject se is omit- 31 ted. G. 545, 2.

5. Oppidis; G. 422, 1.-Recipere; supply eum; i. e., Caesarem. 6. Cis Rhenum, on this side; i. e., the southern or Gallic side, on which several German tribes had settled.

8. Suessiones; object of deterrere, below.

9. Eodem jure et eisdem legibus, the same right (political principles) and the same laws. Jus denotes the principle of right on which lex rests. See Syn. L. C. 405.



10. Cum ipsis, with themselves; i. e., with the Remi.

11. Quin consentirent; G. 499, 2). — Cum his; i. e., cum Belgis.

IV. Forces of the Belgae.

12. Ab his, from these; i. e., from the two ambassadors of the Remi. 13. Essent; G. 525. — Quid possent, how powerful they were. — Quid, G. 380, 2.

14. Plerosque Belgas, most Belgians.

15. Ibi, there; i. e., in Gaul.

16. Loca; G. 141. - Solosque esse, qui, and that they were the only ones, who.

17. Memoria; G. 426.

18. Teutonos Cimbrosque

prohibuerint. The event here referred to belongs to the latter part of the second century B. C., when the Teutoni and Cimbri invaded Southern Europe.

19. Memoria; Abl. of Cause. G. 414.- Uti sumerent; G. 495, 2. 21. Habere explorata. See note on compertum habere, p. 25, line 9. 22. Propinquitatibus affinitatibusque, by relationship and marriage. For the plural of abstract nouns, see G. 130, 2.

24. Pollicitus sit; G. 525; 532, 1.

26. Conficere, to raise; lit., finish, make up the full number.


27. Pollicitos, postulare. Notice difference in tense. - Electa millia sexaginta, sixty thousand picked men.

28. Imperium, management.—Suos finitimos, their neighbors ; i. e., neighbors of the Remi.

30. Divitiacum; not Divitiacus, the Aeduan. See Dict.

31. Potentissimum, the most powerful chieftain. — Quum . . . tum etiam, not only... but also.

32. Britanniae. This is the earliest mention of Britain by a Roman writer.

36. Totidem Nervios. Supply polliceri, of which totidem is the object and Nervios the subject.

37. Longissime absint, are very remote; i. e., far removed from the refining influence of Southern Gaul; hence maxime feri.

38. Atrebates, Ambianos, etc. Supply polliceri. On proper names, see Dict. and Map.

32 3. Condrusos, etc., arbitrari . . . millia, that they (se, i. e., Remos understood) estimated the Condrusi, &c., at forty thousand. Observe that the construction changes at this point. Condrusos is not, like the preceding proper names, the subject of polliceri, to be supplied, but the object of arbitrari, expressed.


Against this formidable host of almost three hundred thousand, Caesar 32 has eight legions of Roman soldiers, together with twenty or thirty thousand auxiliaries and mercenaries, in all about sixty or seventy thousand


V.-VII. Caesar relieves Bibrax, a town of the Remi. prosecutus, having addressed them with kind

6. Liberaliter


8. Obsides; G. 362.

10. Quanto opere, also written quantopere, is in effect an adverb, but may also be explained as an Ablative of Difference. G. 418. - Rei publicae; G. 408, 1.

11. Intersit; G. 525. The subject is manus hostium distineri. G. 408, 2.- Distineri, be kept apart.

13. Id fieri posse; í. e., manus distineri posse.

14. Introduxerint. Fut. Perfect in Direct Discourse. G. 532, 4.

17. Abesse. Supply subject eas; i. e., copias.

18. Axonam. See Dict.-Flumen, exercitum; G. 374, 6. 20. Atque ibi, and there; i. e., on the farther side of the river. Quae res, this position; lit., which thing. G. 453.

21. Quae essent; G. 501, 1.

22. Tuta; Predicate Accusative, agreeing with ea, to be supplied as the object of reddebat and the antecedent of quae. - Commeatus. . . ut . . . efficiebat, made it possible that supplies should be brought.—Commeatus, subject of possent.

24. In eo flumine, over this river.

25. In altera parte, on the other side; i. e., the south side, or the left bank of the river.

27. Duodeviginti pedum. Supply in latitudinem.

31. Sustentatum est, the attack was sustained. The verb is here impersonal.

32. Gallorum eadem. . . est haec, the mode of attack, the same on the part of the Gauls as of the Belgae, is as follows.

35. Testudine facta, forming the testudo or tortoise. See Dict. Phalange facta has nearly the same meaning. See note on the same, p. 12, line 32.

37. Conjicerent. Why plural? G. 461, 1.
38. Consistendi; G. 563. - Nulli; G. 387.
1. Summa nobilitate; Ablative of Characteristic.
2. Unus ex his... de pace. See p. 30, line 30.

5. Posse. The verb of saying is implied in nuntium mittit. G. 530, 1. 6. Eo, thither; i. e., to Bibrax.-De media nocte, at midnight.—



33 Iisdem ducibus usus, employing as guides the same persons. - Duci bus. Predicate noun agreeing with iisdem, used substantively. G. 362, 3. 10. Hostibus; for ab hostibus. G. 425, 3.

13. Quos refers to vicis. G. 445, 3; 439. 14. Copiis; G. 414, 7.— Ab millibus duobus, less than two miles off; i. e., from the camp. G. 378, 2; 418, 2. — Minus; G. 417, 3.


VIII., IX. Skirmishing between the two Armies.

19. Eximiam. . . virtutis, their remarkable reputation for valor. G. 393, 1.- Proelio; G. 425, 2.

20. Quid ... posset periclitabatur, he attempted to ascertain what the enemy could effect by his valor.

22. Loco opportuno, as the place was favorable. G. 431.

24. Collis adversus, the hill on the side opposite the enemy. Adversus is an adjective, agreeing with collis. G. 441, 6.

25. Tantum, quantum loci, as much space as.-Loci; Partitive Genitive after quantum, though in translating we connect it with tantum. G. 396, III.

26. Ex utraque . . . habebat, had a precipitous descent on each side; lit., declivities of side (lateris) from each part.

29. Transversam fossam, a transverse trench; i. e., a trench at right angles with the front of the hill. These two trenches were designed to protect the flanks of the Roman army.

30. Ad extremas fossas, at the extremities of the trenches; i. e., at each end of each of the two trenches. There were, therefore, in all four redoubts (castella).

31. Tormenta. See Dict.

33. Pugnantes suos, his men while fighting. Duabus legionibus, quas; i. e., the two enrolled in Cisalpine Gaul. See p. 30, line 16.


35. Si quo si quo subsidio. —Subsidio; G. 390, 2.

37. Eductas instruxerant; G. 579.

34 1. Si... transirent; Indirect Question. G. 525, 1.

2. Si... fieret. G. 509, 1.

3. Impeditos, while embarrassed or entangled; i. e., in crossing the river.

5. Secundiore... nostris, the engagement of the cavalry being more favorable for our men. G. 391.

8. Demonstratum est. See p. 32, line 20.

10. Cui . . . Titurius. See p. 32, line 25. — Si possent, si minus potuissent. Observe the change of tense. Potuissent expresses past time relative to popularentur.

12. Popularentur, prohiberent; construe with ut. Nobis usui; G. 390.

X., XI. The Belgae disperse to their Homes.


15. Certior factus, having been informed; i. e., of this movement of 34 the enemy.

16. Levis ... Numidas, the light-armed Numidians; lit., of light armor. They were armed with javelins.

17. Ad eos; i. e., ad hostes. In eo loco, in that place; i. e., the place where he met the enemy, suggested by ad eos contendit.

19. Per eorum corpora, over their dead bodies.

21. Repulerunt. Supply nostri.

23. Spem se fefellisse, that they were disappointed in their hope; lit., that hope had disappointed them.

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24. Neque et non.

Construe the negative non with progredi. 26. Optimum esse, that it was best. The subject of esse is the clause domum... reverti. G. 549, 2.

27. Quorum. The antecedent is eos.

29. Convenirent; supply ut. G. 493, 2.

30. Domesticis copiis, home supplies, or supplies from their own land.

33. His persuaderi non poterat, these (the Bellovaci) could not be persuaded. His persuaderi, the subject of poterat. Persuaderi, Impersonal Passive. G. 301, 1.

35. Secunda vigilia, at the second watch. G. 711, 1.

38. Fecerunt ut ... videretur, caused their departure to seem. Fugae; G. 391, 1.

1. Hac re Caesar... cognita. The subject is often thus inserted in 35 the Ablative Absolute when it is the agent of the action expressed by the participle. Here Caesar is the agent of the action denoted by cognita. 5. Novissimum agmen. See note p. 8, line 15.

6. His; i. e., equitatui.

8. Hi, these; i. e., the cavalry and the three legions.-Novissimos, the hindmost, the extreme rear, called below (line 10) extremum agmen.

10. Quum ... consisterent, since those on the extreme rear, to whom (ad quos) our men had come up, made a stand. After quum supply ii, the antecedent of quos. Ventum erat; Impersonal Passive. G. 301.

12. Priores, and those in advance. Supply et.

13. Neque ulla ... continerentur, and were not restrained by any necessity or command.

17. Quantum . . . spatium, as the length of the day permitted; lit., as was the space of the day. - Sub occasumque; G. 602, III. 4.

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