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(p. 38, line 16); two of these at once took their position on the left of the 40 camp, two in front of it, and two on the right. Soon the two on the left, the ninth and the tenth (p. 39, line 30), routed the Atrebates and went in pursuit of them, while the eleventh and the eighth, who were stationed in front, went in pursuit of the Veromandui (p. 40, line 2). Thus the camp was exposed in front and on the left (a fronte et ab sinistra parte). At this juncture the whole force of the Nervii was led against the twelfth and the seventh legion, who occupied a position on the right of the camp, and were, at the moment, its only defence. See plan.

6. Duce Boduognato, under their leader Boduognatus. G. 431.

8. Aperto latere, on the unprotected flank; i. e., on the left, exposed by the removal of the legions which had occupied that position.- Summum... locum, the summit occupied by the camp; lit., of the camp.

11. Quos...dixeram. See p. 38, line 22.

12. Adversis ... occurrebant, met the enemy face to face; lit., the facing enemy. The Roman cavalry found the Nervii in the Roman camp. The rear 14. Ab decumana... jugo; construe with conspexerant. of the camp, where the decuman gate was situated (see plan), occupied the summit of the hill.

15. Nostros victores, our victorious troops, or our troops (men) as victors. Nostros is used substantively. and victores is in apposition with it.

19. Alii aliam... ferebantur, they fled (were borne) in terror (terrified), some in one direction, others in another. G. 459, 1.

21. Equites Treviri; the cavalry of the Treviri. Equites, subject of contenderunt. Treviri, used as an adjective.

23. Quum vidissent, when they had seen.

27. Pulsos. Supply esse.- - Castris; G. 419, I.

30. Caesar; subject of processit, p. 41, line 6. - Ab... cohortatione, after (from) exhorting the tenth legion. Caesar here resumes from p. 39, line 14, the account of the part which he himself took in the battle.

31. Ubi vidit, where he saw. Here commences the description of the scene of confusion and ruin which met the eye of Caesar when he reached the right wing. - Urgeri, esse. These infinitives, with several others, depend upon vidit.

33. Quartae... centurionibus. The student will remember that there were six centurions in each cohort, and ten cohorts in each legion. See note on omnium ordinum, p. 21, line 4.

34. Signo amisso. The loss of a standard was regarded as a great disgrace.

36. Primopilo, the chief centurion. The primopilus, as the chief centurion of the legion, was intrusted with the eagle, or standard of the legion.

1. Deserto proelio, abandoning the contest. G. 431.




2. Neque et non.-Subeuntes, coming up.


4. In angusto, in a critical condition.

5. Militi; G. 386, 2.

6. Eo, thither.

8. Manipulos laxare, to open their ranks.

9. Cujus; i. e., Caesaris. Militibus; G. 386.

10. Pro se quisque, each one for himself; i. e., irrespective of the others.

11. In extremis suis rebus, in their most critical situation. 15. Legiones; i. e., the twelfth and the seventh. Conversa signa ... inferrent, to face about and advance against the enemy; lit., to bear the standards turned about. The two legions, when united, probably formed a rectangle, thus facing the enemy on all sides.

16. Quum alius . . . ferrent, since they bore aid, one to another. G. 461, 3.

19. Legionum duarum. See p. 38, line 9.

22. Labienus castris. Labienus, in command of the ninth and tenth legions, having driven the Atrebates across the river (p. 39, line 33), had reached the enemy's camp on the other side.

24. Legionem subsidio nostris; G. 390, II. — Qui quum, when they; i. e., the soldiers of the tenth legion. G. 445, 5.

26. Versaretur, were. G. 463, I.

27. Nihil... fecerunt, they made all possible haste; lit., they made nothing (of) left; i. e., left nothing undone.—Reliqui; Predicate Genitive. G. 403.

29. Etiam qui, even those who. Supply ii.

31. Occurrerent. Supply ut, from line 29; so also before praeferrent.

32. Turpitudinem fugae. See p. 38, line 22.

33. Legionariis . . . praeferrent, placed themselves before the legionary soldiers; i. e., they sought to outdo them in deeds of valor.

37. His refers to proximi. — Qui.


Supply .

38. Conjicerent, remitterent. Supply ut from line 35. 42 1. Ut, so that.-Non nequidquam, not in vain; i. e., not without

reason and a deliberate purpose; construe with transire.

3. Flumen; i. e., Sabim. See p. 37, line 1.

4. Quae facilia redigerat, had rendered these things easy.

7. Majores natu, the elders. G. 429.—Quos; G. 545.

8. Collectos. Supply esse.

9. Dixeramus. See note, p. 30, line 4.- Victoribus ... impedi

tum, that nothing was difficult for the victors. G. 391.

13. Sexcentis. Supply senatoribus.

14. Vix ad quingentos, to scarcely five hundred.-Possent; G. 501.


The Nervii seem to have exaggerated their loss to excite the compassion 42 of Caesar.

16. Usus. Supply esse.- Misericordia; G. 419, I.

18. Ut... prohiberent; G. 492, 2. — Ab injuria, from injury; i. e., from injuring the Nervii.


War with the Aduatuci. They surrender, but afterwards attempt to surprise the Romans, and are utterly overthrown.

20. Supra scripsimus. See Chapter XVI.

21. Auxilio Nerviis; G. 390.

23. In unum oppidum. The situation of this town is not known.

24. Quum . . . partibus haberet, while this had around it (in circuitu) on all sides. The town occupied the summit of a hill which was precipitous on all sides except in one place, two hundred feet wide, where there was a gentle ascent.

27. Pedum; construe with aditus. - Duplici muro, with a double wall; i. e., with two walls, one within the other. In front of the outer wall they had also dug a trench. See p. 43, line 33.

30. Cimbris Teutonis. See Dict.

32. Citra Rhenum, on this side (i. e., the south side) of the Rhine. 33. Custodiam, praesidium. Here custodiam is used of those who had the immediate care of the baggage, while praesidium refers to the soldiers who guarded it.

34. Post eorum obitum, after their overthrow; i. e., after the overthrow of the Cimbri and Teutones (eorum) by C. Marius, 101 B. C.

36. Illatum defenderent, warded it off when waged against them selves. With illatum supply bellum sibi.

37. Hunc locum, this place; i. e., the territory which they then oc cupied, situated between the Meuse and the Scheldt.

2. Pedum duodecim, twelve feet in height.


3. Quindecim millium. Supply passuum, as usual. Some critics supply pedum. The works here spoken of were constructed by the Romans to enclose the besieged city.

4. Vineis actis. See note, p. 35, line 26.— Aggere. See note, p. 35, line 29.

5. Turrim; G. 62, III.-Irridere, increpitare; Historical Infinitives. G. 545, 1.

7. Ab tanto spatio, at so great a distance, so far off.

9. Gallis contemptui; G. 390.

11. Confiderent; G. 530, II.



12. Moveri. Supply turrim.

14. Qui; subject of dixerunt. The object of dixerunt begins with se suaque, and embraces the rest of the chapter.

15. Existimare. Supply se.

17. Se suaque; object of permittere. The subject se is omitted. G. 545, 2.

18. Petere, deprecari. Deprecari is more specific than petere, and means to strive to avert by prayer; unum deprecari, that they implored him not to do one thing, viz., ne se armis despoliaret.

23. Sibi praestare, that it was better for them.

27. Conservaturum. Supply esse.

28. Aries. The battering-ram was used to batter down the walls and towers of besieged cities. It consisted of a heavy beam with a massive iron head. It was suspended from a framework by means of ropes or chains, and, in the hands of a hundred men, could be driven against the walls with almost irresistible force.

29. Nisi armis traditis, unless the arms be given up.

30. In Nerviis, in the case of the Nervii.

31. Ne quam; construe with injuriam.

32. Quae... facere, that they were already doing those things which were commanded; i. e., by Caesar. This is the report brought back by the ambassadors after they had communicated Caesar's commands to their people (re nuntiata ad suos).

35. Adaequarent; Subjunctive of Result. G. 489, 494.

37. Pace usi sunt, they availed themselves of peace. G. 419, I. 44 3. Quod ... crediderant. Observe the force of the Indicative. G. 520, I.

4. Denique, at least.

5. Scutis... intextis, with shields made of bark or of intertwined osiers. 10. Significatione facta, a signal having been given.

13. Contra eos qui jacerent, against those who (i. e., any who) were hurling. The subjunctive jacerent makes the remark a general one; the indicative would have limited it to Caesar's men. G. 501, 1.

15. Ad millibus quattuor, about four thousand.

20. Capitum, millium. Construe millium with numerus and capitum with millium.


Other Events of the Campaign.

23. Miserat, had sent. This must have been after the battle with the Nervii, for the eight legions were all present in that engagement. See p. 38, lines 7-9.-Venetos... Redones. These states were situated on or near the coast, between the Loire and the Seine.



25. Oceanum; i. e., the Atlantic.

30. Incolerent; Subj. by Attraction.- Mitterentur; Subj. of Result. 35. Ubi... gesserat. Perhaps Crassus, and not Caesar, should be supplied as the subject of gesserat; because the Carnutes, Andes, and Turones, situated on the Loire, were near (propinquae) the scene of the military operations of Crassus, but quite distant from the scene of Caesar's campaign.

37. Ex litteris, in consequence of the despatches. - Dies... supplicatio, a thanksgiving for fifteen days. Public thanksgivings had often been decreed by the senate after' signal victories, but never before for so long a period as fifteen days.

38. Quod, which, referring to the general idea contained in dies... decreta est. Nulli; G. 594, II.










I. Winter Quarters of Galba.

1. Servium Galbam; the great-grandfather of the Emperor Galba. 45 5. Quod ... volebat. This clause supplies the place of a Predicate Nominative after fuit. —Iter; subject of patefieri.

6. Quo, by which, referring to iter. — Magnis cum portoriis, with heavy imposts. This refers to the imposts levied by these Alpine tribes upon all merchandise carried through their territory. Caesar wished to open a route by which merchandise might be brought into Gaul free of duty.

10. Eorum refers to the tribes above mentioned.

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