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45 12. Ipse. Subject of constituit, to be supplied.

14. Octodurus. See Dict.

16. Flumine, by a river; i. e., the Drance.

II.-VI. The Gauls attack Galba, but are repulsed.
He retires into the Roman Province.

20. Hibernorum, of their wintering, or of the winter. Hiberna, which properly designates the winter quarters themselves, here refers to the time spent in them.

21. Eo, thither; i. e., to him in his quarters.—Per exploratores. Why not the Ablative with a or ab? G. 414, 5, 1).

25. Id acciderat ut, it had happened that. Id represents the clause ut caperent. G. 704, II. 6.

27. Primum quod ... despiciebant. This is the first reason assigned for the movement of the Gauls.-Neque eam plenissimam, and that indeed not very full. G. 451, 2. This legion had suffered severely in the battle of the Sambre, so that it was not full even before the two cohorts were detached for service among the Nantuates. See p. 40, lines 32-37.

28. Commeatus; probably Genitive.

30. Tum... quod ... existimabant; a second reason.

46 3. Accedebat, quod, an additional reason was that. Quod... habebant supplies the subject of accedebat.

4. Abstractos. Supply esse. -Obsidum nomine, under the name of hostages. G. 414.

7. Sibi persuasum habebant, they were persuaded; lit., had it persuaded to themselves. Sibi depends upon persuasum. G. 385.

9. Neque satis esset provisum, nor had sufficient provision been made.

16. Neque subsidio veniri, neither could aid come. Supply posset. -Subsidio; G. 390, 2.

18. Ut... contenderent, that they should hasten to a place of safety; lit., to safety.

19. Pervenissent; Subjunctive by Attraction. G. 527.

21. Ad extremum, to the last; i. e., as a last resort. -Rei eventum experiri, to try the issue of the movement.

23. Vix ut; more emphatic than ut vix. - His rebus ... administrandis, for arranging and executing these measures.

25. Decurrere, conjicere, repugnare, etc.; Historical Infinitives. G. 545, 1.

27. Ex loco superiore; i. e., from the ramparts.

28. Ut quaeque pars, when any part; lit., as each (every) part. 30. Hoc superari, they were surpassed in this; i. e., they labored under this disadvantage, explained by quod ... succedebant.

31. Proelio excedebant, were continually withdrawing from the battle; i. e., they withdrew one after another, as they became weary, and fresh troops took their places. - Integris viribus; G. 428.

33. Non modo. See note, p. 37, line 29.-Defesso, saucio; Indirect Objects of dabatur. — Excedendi. Supply facultas dabatur.

38. Languidioribus nostris, as our soldiers were becoming more exhausted. G. 431.



2. Ad extremum casum, to the last extremity. - Baculus. See 47 p. 40, line 36.

3. Proelio; G. 426, 1.

7. Extremum auxilium, the last resort.

8. Milites certiores facit, he directs the soldiers.

9. Intermitterent, exciperent. G. 530, II.

13. Omnibus portis, through (by) all the gates. G. 414, 4. See note,

with plan, on legionis decimae, p. 39, line 30.

14. Sui colligendi, of composing themselves. G. 563, 4.

16. In spem venerant, had entertained the hope; lit., had come into the hope.

17. Circumventos interficiunt; G. 579.

19. Plus tertia; G. 417, 3.

22. Armisque exutis, and stripped of their arms. They had thrown away their arms in flight. Exutis agrees with copiis.

23. Saepius, too often.

24. Alio consilio, with one purpose; i. e., to open free communication with Italy by way of the Alps.

25. Aliis occurrisse. Supply et.

VII., VIII. The Veneti revolt.

31. Quum, though. - Omnibus de causis; construe with existimaret. 32. Expulsis Germanis. This seems to refer to Ariovistus and his Germans. See Book I. 53.

33. Atque ita, and accordingly.

37. Mare Oceanum, the ocean; i. e., the Atlantic. G. 433, 1.

1. Praefectos tribunosque. See note, p. 20, line 21.

2. Frumenti; construe with petendi causa.

4. Gallus. Supply missus.

7. Orae; Partitive Genitive, depending upon amplissima.

9. Consuerunt. Why Perfect? G. 297, 2.

10. In magno impetu . aperto, in consequence of (lit., in) the




48 great violence of the open sea; lit., the great and open violence of the sea.

G. 438, 8.

12. Fit initium retinendi Silii, a beginning is made by detaining (lit., of detaining) Silius.

13. Se obsides. Se is the subject of recuperaturos (esse) and obsides the object.

16. Subita et repentina, sudden and unexpected. Subitus is applicable to whatever takes place suddenly; repentinus only to that which is at once sudden and unexpected.

19. Acturos. Supply se and esse.

20. Ut mallent; Subjunctive of Purpose.

24. Velit, remittat; G. 531; 530, II.—Suos, his men.

25. Sibi, to them; i. e., to the Gauls.

IX.-XI. Caesar prepares for the War.

27. Ipse aberat longius. Where was Caesar at this time? See p. 47, line 34.-Naves longas. See Dict.

32. Simul quod ... intelligebant, as at the same time they understood.

33. In se, against themselves.

34. Legatos. conjectos. Supply esse. The clause explains facinus, and depends upon intelligebant. - Quod nomen, a name which; lit., which name.

38. Hoc majore spe, with the greater hope on this account; explained by quod ... confidebant.


1. Pedestria itinera, approaches by land.

Aestuariis. Some of

these estuaries, upon the coast of the Veneti, extend inland to the distance of five or ten miles. - Navigationem ... inscientiam, that access by sea was difficult (impeded) on account of our ignorance.

4. Diutius, very long.— Ac jam ut, and even though. G. 516, II. 1. 8. Longe aliam . . . atque, very different from what it was; lit., far other than (and). G. 459, 2.

9. In concluso mari, in a closed sea; referring to the Mediterranean. 11. Naves quam plurimas possunt, as many vessels as they are able. G. 444, 3.

17. Erant hae, quas, were these which.

19. Injuriae retentorum, etc., the crime of retaining Roman knights ; lit., the wrongs of the Roman knights retained. This refers to the ambassadors mentioned in the preceding chapter, who, it appears, were of equestrian rank. Injuriae, rebellio, defectio, conjuratio, and the clause ne... arbitrarentur, are all in apposition with multa, and present the considerations which led Caesar to enter upon this war.

25. Priusquam conspirarent; G. 523, II.

30. Adeat; G. 493, 2.

31. Germanos; object of prohibeat. — Auxilio; G. 390, 2.

38. Qui eam ... curet, to see that that force (i. e., the force of these three tribes) be kept separate; i. c., be prevented from effecting a union with the other forces. G. 500.

1. Classi depends upon praeficit.

4. Eo, thither; i. c., into the country of the Veneti.

XII., XIII. The Country of the Veneti. Their
Maritime Power.



6. In extremis lingulis, at the very end of tongues of land. G. 441, 6. 7. Pedibus, by land; lit., by feet.

8. Ex alto se incitavisset, had rushed in (had roused itself) from the deep.

11. Utraque re, by both facts; lit., each thing; i. e., by the danger attending an approach by land at high tide, and by sea at low tide.

12. Magnitudine operis, by the greatness of our work; i. e., of the Roman works.

13. Extruso mari, the sea being kept out. - His, these; i. e., aggere ac molibus; Abl. Absolute. Moenibus depends upon adaequatis.

14. Fortunis; G. 386, 2.

15. Cujus rei, of which; lit., of which thing; referring to the ships (navium).

18. Eo, on this account; viz., quod ... navigandi.

20. Mari, aestibus, portibus; Ablatives Absolute. - Raris portibus, with few and almost no harbors.

22. Namque, for, introducing the reason for the success of the enemy. —Ipsorum naves, their vessels, in contrast with those of the Romans.

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23. Armatae, equipped.

24. Excipere, to encounter.

25. Possent; G. 497.- Erectae. Supply erant.

27. Totae; G. 443.—Ad quamvis ... perferendam, for sustaining any force and violence whatever.

28. Transtra... trabibus, cross-beams (consisting) of timbers a foot in thickness; lit., in height. — Trabibus; G. 428. — Digiti... crassitudine, of the thickness of a thumb. G. 428, 2.

30. Pro funibus, instead of ropes. — Pelles pro velis, skins served as sails; lit., were for sails. Supply erant.

31. Alutae tenuiter confectae, thinly dressed leather. - Hae, referring to pelles alutaeque, is the subject of erant, to be supplied.



50 35. Cum his... erat, the encounter with these vessels was such for our fleet.

36. Ut... praestaret, that it (our fleet) excelled.


1. His; G. 385. - Nostrae. Supply naves. - Rostro, with the beak. The beaks of ancient ships of war, consisting of solid beams armed witn pointed irons, were very formidable in dashing in the sides of the enemy's vessels.

5. Coepisset, ferrent. Observe that coepisset and dedissent depend upon quum, but ferrent, consisterent, and timerent upon ut. G. 518, II.; 495, 2.

Quarum rerum omnium casus, disasters

7. Nihil; G. 380, 2. from all these things.

XIV.-XVI. Caesar conquers the Veneti in a naval


10. Frustra. See Syn. L. C. 338.

11. Neque his noceri posse, nor could any injury be done to them. Noceri; G. 465, 2.

14. Omni genere. ornatissimae, most fully furnished with every kind of equipment. Here armorum probably includes arms, as well as the tackle and the ordinary equipment of a vessel.

15. Nostris; i. e., nostris navibus. G. 391, 1.

16. Bruto; construe with constabat.

18. Agerent, insisterent; G. 525.

20. Turribus excitatis, though towers were erected; i. c., upon the Roman vessels.

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21. Neque et, not—and; lit., nor 22. Missa ab Gallis, those sent by the Gauls.- Gravius, with greater force.

24. Falces; in apposition with res.-Non absimili... falcium forma non absimili formae muralium falcium, of a form not unlike that of mural hooks. G. 428. The mural hooks were powerful iron hooks, fastened to long poles, used in pulling down the walls of besieged towns. 29. Navibus; G. 398, 5.



33. Nullum... factum, no deed a little braver than usual.

38. Binae ac ternae naves, two and even three (of our) vessels at a time.


4. In eam partem, quo. ferebat, in the direction in which the wind was blowing.

5. Malacia, the going down of the wind, a calm.

6. Tranquillitas, stillness, as the result of the going down of the wind. 8. Singulas, the ships one by one. Supply naves.

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