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Ab hora quarta; G. 711.
10. Pervenerint; G. 482, 2. 15. Navium quod ubique fuerat, whatever vessels they had anywhere; lit., what of vessels.
16. Reliqui, the others, in distinction from quibus, which seems to include both men and ships.
17. Neque . reciperent, habebant, neither knew (had) whither to betake themselves. G. 525.
19. Eo gravius. . . quo, the more severely for this reason, that.
22. Sub corona, as slaves; lit., under the crown, referring to the chaplet placed upon the head of the prisoner when offered for sale.
XVII. Quintus Titurius Sabinus is sent into the
24. Quas... acceperat. See p. 49, line 37.
25. His, these; i. e., the Venelli. G. 386.
27. Exercitum magnasque copias. He had not only assembled the regular army, but had also raised additional forces by new levics. His paucis diebus; G. 426, 2, (3).
28. Aulerci Eburovices. Sec Dict.
29. Auctores belli esse, to sanction the war; lit., to be the authors of the war.
XVIII., XIX. Sabinus defeats the Venelli.
33. Ab agricultura... revocabat, detained from agriculture.
34. Idoneo... loco, in a place in all respects suitable. G. 429; 422, 1.
35. Quum, although.― Duum for duorum. G. 175, foot note. 37. Hostibus; G. 398, 5.
1. Opinionem timoris, an impression (on the part of the enemy) of 53 his fear.
2. Id faciebat, he did this; i. c., he kept himself in the camp.
3. Cum multitudine; construe with dimicandum (esse).
4. Eo absente qui, in the absence of him who; i. e., Caesar. 5. Legato; G. 388.
11. Pro perfuga, as a deserter.
12. Timorem... proficiscatur; the false report of this pretended deserter.
13. Neque longius... educat, and that it is not farther off than the next night that Sabinus will secretly lead forth his army from the camp; i. e., that he will do so on the next night; lit., nor is it farther off but that Sabinus, &c.
16. Negotii bene gerendi, of fighting a successful battle
17. Iri oportere, that they ought to go; both verbs Impersonal.
18. Superiorum . . . cunctatio, the delay of Sabinus during the previous days. G. 393, 1; 397, 2.
21. Spes Venetici belli. They had not yet heard the result of this war. See Chapter XVI.
22. Prius; construe with quam in the next line.
24. Capiant, contendant; G. 495, 2.
25. Ut explorata victoria, as if victory were already secured; lit., victory having been as it were already secured. Ut=sicut.
26. Quibus compleant; Purpose. G. 500.
33. Hostibus; G. 431.
54 1. Equites; subject of reliquerunt.
2. Ex fuga evaserant, had escaped from flight; i. e., were no longer in flight.
XX. XXII. Crassus defeats the Sontiates.
11. Ex tertia parte . . . aestimanda, is to be regarded as the third division of Gaul; i. e., as one of the three general divisions; lit., from the third part.
13. Paucis ante annis, a few years before, probably in the year 79 B. C., in the war with Sertorius.
19. Civitates, cities. — Galliae provinciae=Provinciae Romanae, of the province. - Finitimae; construe with civitates.
22. Quo plurimum valebant, in which they were very powerful. 29. Superioribus victoriis; probably those over Valerius and Mallius, mentioned in the last chapter. G. 419, IV.
30. Sine imperatore, without their commander; i. e., without Cacsar. 31. Sine... legionibus. It will be remembered that Crassus had, in addition to his cavalry, only twelve cohorts. See p. 49, line 34.Adolescentulo duce, with a young man (Crassus) as their leader.
32. Perspici. The subject is the clause quid . . . possent.
33. Vertere verterunt.
34. Oppidum Sontiatum; perhaps the modern S88.
35. Vineas turresque. See notes, p. 35, lines 26 and 29.-Illi; subject of mittunt.
36. Cuniculis. These were subterranean passages which the Gauls opened under the Roman works, for the purpose of undermining them.
37. Cujus rei, in which thing; i. e., in constructing these mines (cuniculi). G. 399, 2, 2).
Quorum; construe with amicitiae. — 55
9. Commodis; G. 419, I. Dediderint; G. 527, 2, 2).
11. Ferant, consciscant; construe, like fruantur, with uti.
13. Recusaret; G. 501, 1.—Cum his Adcantuannus. This is a repetition of Adcantuannus cum sexcentis devotis, justified by the long intervening parenthesis.
17. Tamen, yet; i. e., though he attempted to escape. Uti... uteretur; G. 492, 1.
XXIII. – XXVII. Crassus conquers the Aquitani.
21. Oppidum; subject of expugnatum (esse).
22. Paucis diebus, quibus... erat, in a few days after (lit., in which) he had arrived. G. 427, 4.
25. Citerioris Hispaniae, Hither Spain; i. e., Spain north of the river Ebro. G. 401.
26. Finitimae agrees with quae and governs Aquitaniae. G. 391, 1. 29. Omnes annos, during all the years; i. e., all the years of the war, from 80 to 72 B. C.
32. Consuetudine; G. 414, 2. They had learned the Roman mode of warfare from Sertorius.
33. Quod, this, referring in part to the preceding sentence, but more fully explained by suas copias ... diduci . . . augeri.
37. Cunctandum. Supply esse.
38. Quin pugna decertaret, to contend in battle. G. 498, 3.
3. Duplici acie, in a double line of battle; i. e., with two lines of 56 cohorts, instead of three, which was the usual number. See note on triplicem aciem, p. 12, line 25. By this arrangement Crassus presented a more extended front.
4. Auxiliis. Crassus, having but little confidence in the auxiliaries, placed them in the centre, and not, as usual, on the wings.
10. Sese... coepissent, should begin to retreat. G. 532, 4.
11. Sub sarcinis. See note on impedimentorum, p. 37, line 16. - Infirmiore animo, more depressed in spirit; lit., of (with) more depressed (weak) spirit. G. 428.
14. Sua, their; rcferring to the enemy. - Opinione timoris, by the opinion (now entertained by the Romans) of their cowardice.- Hostes; subject of effecissent.
16. Exspectari, iretur; Impersonal passive. Render like the Personal active, to hesitate, to go. The clause exspectari . . . iretur is in apposition with voces.
20. Vallo; G. 425; 434, 1.
22. Lapidibus, telis, cespitibus; Abls. of Means. Ad agge, rem. Supply faciendum.
25. Ex loco superiore; i. e., from their fortifications.
26. Circumitis... castris; G. 431.
28. Ab decumana porta, at (from) the decuman gate. See note on castris, p. 6, line 28.
33. Praesidio castris; G. 390.-Intritae ab labore, not worn out by labor. G. 414, 6.
34. Ne possent; Subjunctive of Purpose. G. 489.
36. Eas... munitiones; i. e., those near the decuman gate.
37. Prius quam ... videri. Supply possent.
1. Posset. The subject is quid rei gereretur. G. 525, 1; 523, II.
2. Quod, which. G. 445, 7.
3. Consuevit, is wont. G. 297, I. 2.
5. Per munitiones, over (through) the fortifications.
7. Quae, referring to millium, is the subject of convenisse.
9. Multa nocte, late at night.
11. Ultro, moreover. — - Quo in numero, in this number; referring to maxima pars Aquitaniae.
14. Tempore; G. 419, II.
XXVIII. Caesar marches against the Morini and the
18. Supererant, alone remained. Supply soli.-Qui essent; G. 501, II.
20. Qui, but they; i. e., the Morini, etc. G. 453. Longe alia... Galli, in a way far different from the other Gauls; lit., far other than the other Gauls. G. 459, 2. —Galli; subject of gesserant, to be supplied.
22. Contendissent; G. 531.
23. Continentesque silvas habebant, and because (quod) they had extensive forests.
30. Compluribus; i. e., of the Gauls. — Longius, too far. G. 444, 1. -Locis; G. 422, 1.
XXIX. The Campaign is interrupted by violent Rains. Caesar retires into Winter Quarters.
32. Reliquis deinceps diebus, in all the remaining days. Deinceps implies an uninterrupted series.
33. Ne quis impetus, that no attack. - Militibus; G. 431.
38. Extrema impedimenta, the rear of the baggage; i. e., of the
3. Sub pellibus, in the tents; lit., under skins; i. e., the skins with 58 which the Roman tents were covered.
5. In Aulercis; construe with in hibernis collocavit.
6. Quae proxime . . . fecerant, which had last made war upon him, viz., the Veneti, the Venelli, and the Sontiates.
CAMPAIGN OF THE YEAR 55 B. C., IN THE CONSULSHIP OF CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS AND M. LICINIUS CRASSUS.
I. EXPEDITION INTO GERMANY. I.-XIX.
II. EXPEDITION INTO BRITAIN. XX.-XXXVI.
III. WAR WITH THE MORINI AND THE MENAPII. XXXVII., XXXVIII.
I.-III. Two German Tribes come into Gaul.
1. Hieme; construe with transierunt. G. 426. —Qui fuit ... con- 59 sulibus, this (lit., which) was the year when Gnacus Pompey and Marcus Crassus were consuls. This is somewhat parenthetical, but is added to show to what year these events belong. - Qui; G. 453.
2. Germani, Germans ; i. e., a German tribe.
4. Quo, into which; lit., whither.
5. Quod ab. prohibebantur. This clause supplies the place of a predicate noun after fuit. G. 362.-Suebis. The Suebi occupied a vast tract of country extending from the Baltic to the Danube and from the Elbe to the Vistula.
9. Singula millia, each a thousand; lit., single thousands; i. e., a thousand apiece.
11. Illos, those; i. e., the warriors. Hi, these; referring to reliqui.
16. Maximam partem, for the most part. G. 380, 2.-Lacte; G.
17. Quae res, and this fact; referring to the mode of life just mentioned. Res; subject of alit, efficit.
18. Quod ... faciant. This explains libertate vitae. - Nullo offi