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59 cio assuefacti, accustomed to no duty; lit., accustomed, trained in (by

means of) no duty.

20. Faciant; G. 520, II.—Magnitudine, G. 428.

22. Locis frigidissimis, though their country (lit., places) is exceedingly cold. G.431. — Vestitus; Partitive Genitive with quidquam.

25. Magis eo, ut, the more for this reason, that. —Quae. Supply ea, as the antecedent of quae and as the object of vendant.

26. Quibus. Supply eos, as the antecedent of quibus and the object of habeant. - Quam quo, than because.

27. Jumentis depends upon utuntur.

30. Haec... ut sint efficiunt, these they make, by daily exercise, capable of the greatest labor. Haec, i. e., haec jumenta, is the antecedent of quae and the subject of sint.

60 1. Ut sint; G. 489.- Laboris; Predicate Genitive. G. 401.

2. Pedibus, on foot; lit., on their feet. G. 414.

4. Moribus; G. 414, 2.

8. Ea re, by this; lit., by this thing, i. e., wine.

11. Significari. Supply putant.

13. Una ex... a Suebis, in one direction from the Suebi.

15. Ut est... Germanorum, according to the German standard; lit., as is the capacity of the Germans ; i. e., so far as a German state can be ampla atque florens.

16. Ejusdem . ceteris, than the others of the same race; i. E.,

than

...

the other Germans.

19. Hos; the object of expellere. It refers to the Ubii.

IV. The Usipetes and the Tencteri seize the Territory of the Menapii.

24. In eadem causa, in the same condition; i. e., the same as the Ubii.

30. Trans flumen, on the other side of the river; i. e., on the German síde.

33. Vi contendere, to accomplish their object by force.

36. Itinere; G. 431.-Equitatu; G. 414, 4.

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2. His, eorum. These words refer to the Menapii, who had returned to their homes.

6. Eorum copiis, upon their stores; i. e., upon the stores of provisions which the Menapii had collected for their own use.

V., VI. Caesar prepares to carry the War into Germany. 8. Mobiles, impulsive, changeable.

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9. Nihil his committendum, that no confidence should be reposed in 61 them; i. e., at such a crisis.

10. Est... consuetudinis, is a Gallic custom. G. 401.- Uti... cogant. This clause is in apposition with hoc, while at the same time it denotes result. G. 495, 3.

11. Et connects quaerant to cogant.

12. Audierit; G. 525.

13. Mercatores; object of circumsistat. G. 371, 4.-Vulgus circumsistat, cogant. Observe the change of number. G. 461, 1, 3). 16. Quorum; G. 410, III.

18. Et plerique ... respondeant, and since most persons give them answers adapted to their desires.

19. Ne graviori ... occurreret, that he might not encounter a more formidable war. Caesar feared that the Gauls would unite with the

Germans.

20. Ad exercitum, to the army, which was at the time in winter quarters. See p. 58, line 7. He himself probably spent the winter, in accordance with his usual custom, in Northern Italy or Cisalpine Gaul.

23. Uti... discederent, to withdraw from the Rhine; i. e., to come into the interior of Gaul.

24. Quae postulassent, which they (the Germans) might demand. G. 532, 4. — Fore depends upon a verb of saying implied in invitatos. G. 530, 1.

28. Dissimulanda. Supply esse. See Syn. L. C. 605.-Permulsis et confirmatis. He soothed and encouraged them as if he supposed them perfectly true to him.

29. Equitatu imperato. Caesar depended upon the Gauls for cavalry.

30. Constituit, made known his purpose.

VII. - IX. Caesar's Interview with the German
Embassy.

32. Quibus in locis. See note on quibus itineribus, p. 3, line 33. 38. Resistere. Supply iis, referring to quicumque.

2. Posse. Supply se.-Sibi, to them; i. e., to the Germans.

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3. Attribuant, patiantur; Imperative in the Direct Discourse. G. 530, II.

5. In terris, in the world; lit., in the lands.

7. Quae; object of respondere, to be supplied.

8. Exitus, the conclusion. — Sibi; G. 387.

9. Qui. Supply eos as antecedent.

14. Hoc se. Se is the subject and hoc the object of imperaturum (esse).

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18. Propius se, nearer to them. G. 437, 1.

21. Trans Mosam, across the Meuse; i. e., to the western side of the river. Caesar was at this time between the Rhine and the Meuse.

X. Description of the Rhine and the Meuse.

24. Ex... Vosego, qui . . . Lingonum, from Mount Vosges, which is in the territory of the Lingones; i. e., from that part of the Vosges which is thus situated, as only a portion of it is in the territory of the Lingones.

25. Parte... recepta. This refers to the left branch of the Rhine, called the Waal, which forms a junction with the Meuse.

26. Insulam Batavorum. This island, triangular in form, is bounded on the north-east by the Rhine, on the south by the Waal and the Meuse, and on the west by the North Sea. See Map.

29. Longo spatio, a long distance. G. 422, 1, 2).

30. Citatus, with a swift current.

33. Sunt, qui, there are some who. G. 445, 5.

34. Piscibus; G. 414.

XI. XV. Caesar defeats the Germans with great

Slaughter.

37. Ut... constitutum.

See line 17 above.

38. Congressi, having met him (Caesar).

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3. Sibi... faceret, that he would grant them the privilege.

5. Sibi... fecissent, would give them security by an oath; i. e., that they would receive them into their territory, as Caesar had proposed. See p. 62, line 12.-Fecissent; G. 532, 4.

7. Daret; Imperative in Direct Discourse. G. 530, II.

8. Eodem illo, to that same object; i. e., the same as their other proposal, p. 62 line 22. It is, however, more fully explained in the following clause, ut equites reverterentur.

11. Huc, hither; i. e., to the place where he would then be.

13. Praefectos; i. e., the prefects of cavalry.

14. Qui nuntiarent; Subj. of Purpose. G. 500. The antecedent is quosdam, the omitted object of mittit.

15. Sustinerent, to sustain the attack; i. e., to act on the defensive. 21. Legati eorum, their ambassadors; i. e., the ambassadors of the Germans.

23. Rursus resistentibus, when our men in their turn resisted. Supply nostris.

30. Genere; G. 425, 3, 1).

31. Amicus. See note on amicus, p. 2, line 32.

3. Exspectare; subject of esse in the next line.

4. Dementiae esse; G. 401.

6. Hostes, the enemy; i. e., the Germans. Auctoritatis; construe

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with quantum.

8. Legatis et quaestore. See note on legatos et quaestorem, p. 28, line 11.

9. Diem pugnae, day suitable for battle; lit., day of battle. G. 393, 1. 10. Postridie ejus diei; G. 411, 2.

13. Ut dicebatur, as they said; lit., as was said; i. e., by them.Sui purgandi; G. 563, 4.

14. Contra atque esset dictum, contrary to what had been agreed upon. G. 587, I. 2.

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16. Fallendo, by deceiving him.—Quos; subject of oblatos (esse). According to Caesar's account the Germans were guilty of the basest violation of good faith. It is entirely possible, however, that Caesar was deceived, and suspected treachery when none was really intended. Some have even supposed that he availed himself of this attack upon his cavalry as an excuse for destroying the Germans.

21. Prius... quam; G. 523, 3, 2).

23. Discessu suorum, by the departure (absence) of their chiefs, detained by Caesar.

25. Perturbantur = dubitant, are in doubt.

29. Quo loco, in this place; i. e., in the camp. G. 422, 1, 1).

33. Ad quos consectandos, to pursue these. G. 569, 4, 2). This act of Caesar seems to have been an instance of inexcusable barbarity.

37. Ad confluentem . . . Rheni. This probably refers to the confluence of the Meuse with the left branch of the Rhine, also called the Waal. See p. 62, lines 25 and 26.

3. Ad unum omnes, all to a man; i. e., without exception. - Ex 65 tanti... timore, after the alarm of so great a war.

9. Libertatem concessit, granted liberty; i. e., allowed them to remain with him as free men.

XVI., XVII. Caesar bridges the Rhine.

11. Quarum ... justissima, of which the most important (most suitable) was the following. G. 450, 3.

12. Quod; construe with voluit.

13. Suis ... voluit, he wished them (the Germans) to fear for their own possessions.- Rebus; G. 385, 3.

15. Accessit etiam, quod, an additional reason also was that.

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16. Supra commemoravi. See p. 62, line 21.

21. Postularent; G. 500.- Eos; object of dederent.
22. Dederent. Supply ut. G. 493, 2.

23. Se invito, without his (Caesar's) consent. G. 431.

24. Sui imperii aut potestatis, under (of) his sway (rule) or power. G. 401.

29. Occupationibus rei publicae, by his public duties; lit., occupations of state.

30. Exercitum Rhenum; G. 374, 6.

32. Ejus exercitus, of his (Caesar's) army.

34. Opinione et amicitia, by the reputation and friendship.

66 1. Suae... dignitatis esse, to be consistent with his own dignity or that of the Roman people. G. 402, 1.

3. Proponebatur, was clearly seen; lit., was set before him.

4. Id sibi contendendum, that he must attempt it. He accordingly proceeded to bridge the Rhine, probably near Bonn.

6. Tigna bina sesquipedalia, two piles each a foot and a half thick. Tigna is the object of jungebat. The distributive bina is used because there were several pairs. See plan on the next page.

7. Dimensa ad altitudinem, etc., adapted to the depth of the river. The longest piles would, of course, be needed in the deepest water.

8. Intervallo... jungebat. This means that the two piles were made fast to each other, but were at the same time kept two feet apart. This was probably done by means of strong cross-pieces or ties (fibulis, line 16 below).- Haec quum . . . adegerat, when, by means of machines, he had let these down into the water (immissa), had secured them there (defixerat), and had driven them down with rammers.

10. Non sublicae . . . perpendiculum, not like (in the manner of) an ordinary pile, vertically (directe ad perpendiculum); lit., entirely according to the plumb-line.

11. Secundum . . . fluminis, according to the current (nature) of the river; i. e., down the stream.

12. His contraria, opposite to these. G. 391. Contraria agrees with tigna, to be supplied after duo = bina. Duo is admissible in this instance, because the meaning is perfectly clear from bina, in line 6 above.

13. Intervallo pedum ... parte, at the distance of forty feet down the river (ab inferiore parte). - Contra vim conversa, turned against the force and current of the river. Thus the upper pair of piles sloped down the river, and the lower pair up the river. See plan.

14. Haec utraque, these two pairs.

15. Quantum . . . distabat, which was the distance between the piles; lit., as much as the joint of these piles opened; i. e., the interval between the two piles was two feet, and accordingly a beam two feet thick (bipe

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