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4. Erant usui; G. 390, 2. — Quod . . . constabat, because it was manifest to all.

XXX.-XXXVI. The Britons attack Caesar, but are defeated. Caesar returns to Gaul.

7. Principes; subject of duxerunt in line 13.


11. Quae refers to castrorum.-Hoc, on this account, viz., quod . transportaverat.

13. Factu; G. 570, 1.

14. Rem producere, to protract the war.

17. Rursus here does not mean strictly a second time, but implies that the Britons were resuming their former hostility. - Ex castris; i. e., of Caesar.

18. Ex agris deducere. This refers to the assembling of the forces, as remigrare in agros refers to the disbanding of them. See p. 71, line 16. 20. Ex eventu... ex eo quod, from the fate of his ships, and from the fact that.

24. Quae naves, earum=earum navium, quae. G. 445, 8.

28. Reliquis ut... effecit, he made it possible to set sail with the rest in safety.

31. Frumentatum; G. 569.

32. Appellabatur septima, was called the seventh; i. e., septima was the name of the legion. The legions were numbered as they were raised, and were afterwards known by the numbers then assigned to them. Caesar had under his command in all eight legions, two in Britain, the seventh and tenth, and six in Gaul, the eighth, ninth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth.

33. Hominum, of the men; i. e., of the Britons. — Etiam in castra, even into our camp.

35. Quam consuetudo ferret, than usual; lit., than custom bore. G. 531.

37. Id, quod erat, that which was actually the case, explained by aliquid. consilii.

38. Cohortes, quae erant. One cohort guarded each of the four gates of the camp. See note on castris, p. 6, line 28. — Cohortes; construe with proficisci jussit.


1. Ex reliquis . . . succedere, two of the other (six) cohorts to take their places on guard. He could spare only two cohorts to guard the gates.

4. Conferta legione; G. 430.

7. Pars una, only one part; i. e., only one place from which grain could be obtained.


10. Incertis ordinibus, as their places were uncertain. In the con- 73 fusion of the moment they could not readily find their places in the ranks.

12. Hoc est, is as follows.

13. Perequitant; G. 467, II.-Ipso terrore equorum, by the very terror caused by their horses; lit., dread of their horses.

22. Sustinere, to rein in; construe with consuerint. — Brevi . flectere, quickly to control and turn them.

23. Per temonem percurrere, to run along the pole; i. e., to run out on the pole of the chariot, between the two horses.

25. Perturbatis nostris; G. 431.- Novitate pugnae, by the strange mode (newness) of fighting.

29. Suo loco, in a favorable position. G. 422, 1.

32. Qui... reliqui, the rest (of the Britons), who were in the fields, departed; i. e., joined the army.

33. Quae continerent; G. 500.

37. Sui liberandi, of freeing themselves; i. e., from the Roman invaders. G. 563, 4. — Daretur depends upon demonstraverunt. G. 525.

38. Castris; G. 434, 1.—Expulissent; G. 532, 4.

3. Idem quod, the same thing, which, explained by ut... effugerent. 74 6. Ante dictum est. See pp. 68, 71.

10. Spatio; G. 378, 2.

16. Propinqua ... equinoctii, as the equinox was near at hand. G. 431. The autumnal equinox is meant. Caesar remained in Britain about

three weeks.

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17. Hiemi... subjiciendam, that the voyage should be exposed to the storm; i. e., should be made at the stormy season, as might be the case if he should wait for the hostages.

20. Eosdem ... portus, to reach the same ports as the rest. The reference seems to be to the two ports mentioned on p. 69, lines 5 and 9.

XXXVII., XXXVIII. War with the Morini and the

23. Quibus ex navibus, from these ships; i. e., from the two transports.

26. Non ita magno, not so very large.

27. Circumsteterunt, surrounded them; i. e., the three hundred.

28. Orbe facto, having formed a circle. Thus, though surrounded,

they presented a front to the enemy on every side.

29. Ad clamorem, in response to a shout; lit., to a shout.

31. Suis auxilio; G. 390, II. 1, 2).

34. Postea... quam=posteaquam; G. 704, IV. 3.



1. Qui quum, since they; i. e., the Morini.

2. Siccitates paludum, the dryness of the marshes. The plural of the abstract siccitates is explained by the plural paludum. G. 130, 2. — Quo se...non haberent, had no place to which (had not whither) they could betake themselves.

3. Quo perfugio, which refuge; i. c., the marshes.

9. Eo, thither; i. c., to his winter quarters.

11. Ex litteris... supplicatio. See note on p. 44, line 37.







I. -VII. Caesar returns to his Army, and marches against the Treviri.

76 2. Ab hibernis. See p. 75, line 8.—In Italiam, into Italy; i. e., into Cisalpine Gaul.

3. Uti aedificandas curarent, that they should cause to be built. Quam plurimas possent, as many as they could.

5. Modum, style; referring to the general style and fashion of the vessels.

6. Subductionesque, and for (ad) drawing them on shore. Roman vessels, when not in use, were drawn on shore.

7. Quam quibus, than those which.-In nostro mari, in our sea; i. e., the Mediterranean.

8. Id, he does this. Supply facit. G. 367, 3, 1).

9. Ibi, there; i. e., in the English Channel, where they were to be used.

12. Actuarias, light, easily propelled. They were furnished with oars, and perhaps also with sails.

14. Conventibus. See note on p. 29, line 20.

15. Illyricum. This country also belonged to Caesar's province. 21. De injuriis satisfacere, to render satisfaction for the wrongs done; lit., concerning the injuries.

25. Inter civitates; i. e., between the Pirustae and those whom they had injured.-Dat, appoints. — Qui ... constituant, to estimate the damage and determine the penalty.

1. Cujus = cujus generis naves.

3. Ab eo, from this, explained by quin... possent. G. 498.

8. Huic rei, for this purpose; i. c., to carry out his orders for the assembling of the vessels at port Itius. G. 391.

9. Militum; construe with quod. G. 396, III.

13. Haec civitas; i. e., the state of the Treviri. — Galliae depends upon plurimum. G. 396, 2, 4), (4).

15. Supra demonstravimus. See p. 49, line 29.

17. Ex quibus alter, the latter of whom.

20. Gererentur; G. 525.

21. Cogere; construe with instituit.

23. Ingenti magnitudine; Abl. of Characteristic. G. 428.

24. Medios; G. 441, 6.

28. De suis privatim rebus, in regard to their own personal interests. Privatim explains suis.

31. Sese noluisse; G. 530, 1.

33. Discessu; Abl. of Cause. - Propter...laberetur, should, on account of their thoughtlessness, revolt.

36. Ejus fidei, to his (Caesar's) protection, implying trust and confidence.





6. Nihilo tamen secius, still none the less on that account; i. e., although Indutiomarus had complied with his demands, yet. - Principibus, the chiefs; i. e., of the party of Indutiomarus.

8. Merito ejus, in accordance with his deserts; i. e., the deserts of Cingetorix.

9. Magni interesse, that it was of great importance. G. 408, 3.

11. Perspexisset; G. 501, I. - Id factum is explained by suam gratiam...


12. Qui fuisset; G. 519.

13. Hoc dolore =

hujus rei dolore, with resentment at this.

17. Eodem, unde, to the place from which. They had been unable to reach port Itius.

20. Millium depends upon equitatus.- Numero; Abl. of Specification.

25. Ante dictum est. See pp. 2, 9, and 10.

28. Magni animi, of a haughty spirit.

31. Recusandi.

causa, for the purpose of objecting or entreating.

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36. Religionibus, by religious scruples. -Impediri sese diceret impediretur, ut dicebat, was hindered, as he said. G. 520, 1.

79 2. Fieri depends upon a verb of saying, implied in territare. G. 530, 1. The subject of fieri is the clause ut . . . spoliaretur.


3. Ut... necaret explains consilium. G. 495, 3.

5. Fidem ... interponere; Hist. Infinitive; he pledged his word to the rest.

6. Ex usu Galliae, of service to (lit., of) Gaul.

12. Ne quid; G. 380.

19. Impeditis, occupied; i. c., in the preparations for the voyage.
20. Insciente Caesare, without Caesar's knowledge. G. 431.
23. Retrahi. Supply eum.

24. Pro sano, as a sane man.

27. Liberaeque civitatis, and the citizen of a free state. G. 401.

VIII.-XI. Caesar lands in Britain, gains a Victory, and repairs his Fleet.

35. Ipse, he himself; i. e., Caesar.-Pari numero quem, the same number as; lit., which.

80 1. Delatus aestu, having been carried away by the tide. The tide carried him to the north-east, so that he saw Britain on his left, sub sinistra. 2. Secutus, taking advantage of.

3. Qua... superiore aestate. See note on aperto, etc., p. 69, line 25. 5. Virtus, the endurance.

11. Annotinis. Supply navibus.

12. Sui commodi. Supply causa. G. 397, 1.

17. Consedissent; G. 525. — Cohortibus decem. The ten cohorts were probably detailed from different legions.

21. Praesidio; G. 386.·

Navibus; G. 392.

23. Equitatu; G. 414, 7. — Ad flumen, probably the Little Stour, about twelve miles from Deal.

31. Aggere. See note on aggere jacto, p. 35, line 29.

37. Milites, infantry, in distinction from equites.


2. Extremi, the rear; probably the rear of the retreating enemy.

5. Subsisterent, held, the reason assigned by the cavalry; hence the subjunctive. G. 520, II.

13. Viderentur; Subjunctive of Result. G. 489.

14. Fabros deligit. Each Roman legion had its complement of artisans, but deligit seems to imply that he also selected from the ranks any others whose skill could be made available in this emergency.

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