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not at all necessary. It is only Sallust's usual manner of joining two nearly synonymous words: see Excursus I. 9.-3. Quodsi, i. e. ob quod si, i. e. on account of this plain and evident superiority of the mental powers, if they were also exercised in times of peace, etc. Kritz makes quodsi merely a particle of connexion: see Zumpt, §342.-imperatorum, rulers, not duces: comp. vi. 7.—animi virtus : see i. 5.-valeret, would continue in vigour, i. e. would not degenerate.-neque aliud, etc., i. e. there would not be conquests, internal dissensions, etc. He has the history of Rome after the conquest of Carthage in view.-alio, sc. homini; or perhaps loco, alio being the regular dat. of alius: see Zumpt, § 140. Reguli... alius alio concessere, Jug. xii. 2.—Ubi cum alii alio tenderent, Liv. xxiv. 28. Si alii alio trahant res, Id. ib.— -cerneres: see on i. 6. —4. artibus, sc. animi, i.e. virtutibus: see § 3.—5. continentia. This word and abstinentia are restricted by Sallust to things relating to money.-lubido, here opposed to continentia, and therefore to be restricted in the same manner.-invasere, sc. reges et imperatores: comp. xii. 2. It is used like the Greek aorist, Eπnioav.-6. Ita imperium, etc. He is now apparently alluding to the changes of empire in the East, for at Rome matters had been continually deteriorating.—7. Quæ homines arant, etc., sc. etiam. But it is not alone in the conduct of wars and ruling of states that mental power exhibits its superiority; it does so equally in the inferior arts of agriculture, navigation, and building. The Latin language does not, we believe, contain another instance of such a mode of construction as this is.-virtuti parent. Omnis enim res . . . Divitiis parent, Hor.Sat. ii. 3, 94.—8. Sed multi, etc. It might therefore be expected that men would cultivate their mental powers, but, on the contrary, etc. By multi mortales he may mean, the bulk of mankind, oi woλλoí.—dediti, etc., i, e. being mere animals, as we would express it.-sicuti peregrinantes. Because persons who are only travelling through a country, take no share in its affairs, public or private, and in general get but a slight knowledge of it.—transiere, an aorist. Many MSS. read transegere, which Corte and Gerlach have adopted.—profecto, i. e. pro facto, in deed, of a truth.-naturam, sc. humanam.—oneri. There is great force in this term, indicating how utterly sunk they were in material enjoyments.-juxta, i. e. pariter nihili.9. Verum enimvero. Sallust uses this rather rare expression only here and xx. 10. It occurs in Plautus (Capt. v. 4, 2); Terence (Ad. ii. 5,2); Cato (ap. Gell. xiii. 24); Cicero (Verr. iii. 84); and Livy (iv. 4.xxiv. 5).-vivere, sc. vere.-aliquo negotio. This, Kritz


says, is an abl. instrum., in which case intentus is to be taken in its passive sense. If it is to be used in its ordinary deponent sense, aliquo negotio must be a dat., aliquo being i. q. aliquoi, alicui, like quo. For intentus, see on iv. 1.—facinoris, deed, course of action, in which the powers of the body were engaged, though not exclusively, such as command in war, pleading in the Forum, etc. Facinus is one of those words, which simply expressing an act or condition, is used sometimes in a good, sometimes in a bad sense, the adj. malus being understood in the latter case. Such are dolus, tempestas, valetudo: see on § 2.-artis. This relates more particularly to the mind, such as literary persuits : comp. 4.-10. Sed, dé, now.


III. 1. Pulchrum, kaλóv, i. e. morally beautiful, good.-bene facere. This is the preceding præclarum facinus.—rei publicæ (dat.), for the state.-bene dicere, the preceding ars bona, i. e. literary merit, not public speaking, as appears by what follows.haud absurdum (litotes), no mean merit. Absurdus is usually derived from ab surdus, as being what is not worth listening to; but may it not be derived from ordo, or some lost kindred term? Haud fuerit absurdum tradere, montem eum antiquitus Querquetulanum cognomento fuisse. Tac. Ann. iv. 65. Here absurdum evidently means, beside our purpose, out of our course, unsuitable comp. Eund. Ann. iii. 47; xii. 9; xiii. 45.-multi. This is not as Dahl understood it, i. q. multum or valde.-laudantur, are named with commendation and praise. In this sense laudo is used as equivalent to our quote, cite, in speaking of authors.2. auctorem, the author of, he who, as it were, gives origin to events, giving them dignity and importance by his exertions of mind and body in them. Many MSS. (which Orelli follows) read actorem.-arduum, difficult. We take this word here in its ordinary sense, as nearly i. q. difficile, with which Cicero frequently joins it. Gellius (iv. 15), in defending it against some cavillers, says it is duaxeons or xaλeróg, annoying, disagreeable, and the commentators adopt his views. But the plain meaning of Sallust is, that it is a very difficult thing to write history in such a manner as will give general satisfaction, as, independent of the inherent difficulties, it has to encounter prejudices.—scribere, sc. bene.—reprehenderis. Indef.: see on i. 6.—supra ea, sc. quæ dicta sunt. In this place Sallust had evidently in his view the following passage in the speech of Pericles (Thuc. ii. 35): "O тɛ yàp Evveidwg kai εὔνους ἀκροατὴς τάχ ̓ ἄν τι ἐνδεεστέρως πρὸς ἃ βούλεταί τε καὶ ἐπίσταται νομίσειε δηλοῦσθαι· ὅ τε ἄπειρος ἔστιν ἃ καὶ πλε

ονάζεσθαι, διὰ φθόνον, εἴ τι ὑπὲρ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ φύσιν ἀκούοι. Μέχρι γὰρ τοῦδε ἀνεκτοὶ οἱ ἔπαινοί εἰσι περὶ ἑτέρων λεγόμενοι, ἐς ὅσον ἂν καὶ αὐτὸς ἕκαστος οἴηται ἱκανὸς εἶναι δρᾶσαί τι ὧν ἤκουσε τῷ δὲ ὑπερβάλλοντι αὐτῶν φθονοῦντες ἤδη καὶ ἀπιστοῦσι.—3. adulescentulus, i. q. adulescens (see on Jug. xi. 2), i. e. when a young man. This word, like puer, etc., is used with great latitude : comp. xlix. 2. -initio, i. e. at the commencement of my career of, sc. meo or magno: see on i. 1. Populus studio stupidus (i. e. stupens) in funambulo animum occuparat, Ter. Hec. Pr. i. 4. Equidem fateor me ad hoc bellum majore studio quam consilio profectum, Tac. Hist. iii. 11.-rem publicam, public affairs, i. e. seeking for office in the state, i. e. the quæstorship, the first office, and for which the legitimate age was thirty-one years.—abstinentia, sc. a pecunia: see on ii. 5. It seems here to be opposed to largitio rather than to avaritia. But these two last vices are akin, and abstinentia is, we may say, a part of the virtus animi, which enables a man to conquer the meaner passions. -largitio. This answers to our bribing and treating at elections. -avaritia (from aveo), cupidity, covetousness, the desire of gain in general, and not merely purpoλoyía, our avarice; for the avarus might be and, as is here supposed, often was very extravagant. In fact, avarus is sometimes used as i. q. avidus: see on Virg. Geor. i. 47, and Hor. A. P. 324.—4. aspernabatur, rejected, lit. spurned at, cast off from it with aversion and disdain.—insolens, unused to, unacquainted with.-malarum artium: comp. ii. 9.— vitia, i.e. vitiosos. — tenebatur, was kept detained, prevented from escaping.-5. reliquis. Corte, Gerlach, and Orelli, read reliquorum, sc. hominum.—malis moribus : see § 4.—dissentirem, I differed from, was free from, cultivated the opposite virtues. Galliæ ceterarum gentium more ac natura dissentiunt, Cic. pro Font. 9.-honoris cupido, desire of office in the state.-eadem qua. This is the reading of Gronovius, Bip. and Orelli, who take fama and invidia as ablatives. Corte reads eadem quæ, Kritz eademque quæ.— fama, sc. mala.-invidia, odium. Sallust uses the word frequently in this sense. Scaurus nonnullam habebat invidiam quod ... locupletis hominis bona sine testamento possiderat, Cic. de Orat. ii. 70.

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IV. 1. Igitur, etc., i. e. after he had enriched himself with the plunder of Numidia: see Life of Sallust. But what he wants to have understood is the trials and annoyances to which his virtue, as he had just told us, had been exposed.—periculis: see on ii. 2. It may however here mean dangers.-habendam. This is not

i. q. agendam; it simply denotes the state or condition, as habere gratias is different from agere gratias.—bonum, i. e. that could be well employed.-conterere. This verb and the simple tero are used in both a good and a bad sense; here in the latter, to waste away. neque vero, etc. The punctuation here given by Kritz, and adopted by Orelli and Zumpt, § 664, is a great improvement. In all the other editions intentum is joined with servilibus officiis. By these words is meant that agriculture and hunting were, or might be, exercised by slaves. Colendo and venando are gerunds and datives.-intentum. This part. occurs so often in what may be considered an active sense, that we are inclined to think that it was regarded as being of the middle voice, or reflective, and therefore nearly i. q. intendens; or it was a passive part. used as a deponent, like falsus: see on x. 5. There is usually an ellipse of animum or ingenium: comp. li. 3-2. incepto studioque. Many MSS., which are followed by Corte, read incepto studio. Kritz and others view que as explanatory (even), a sense which in our Virgil we have observed it often to have; but there seems no necessity for it in this place, as inceptum and studium are different things.-mala. So he calls his public career, as he wants now to appear in a good light.—regressus. From this it would appear that he had meditated writing history from an early period.— carptim, piecemeal, i. e. selecting interesting or important portions.-perscribere, to write fully and carefully.-partibus rei publice. An asyndeton. As he did not write till after the death of Cæsar, he probably means the parties of the younger Cæsar and M. Antonius, to whom, as a Cæsarian, he was equally acceptable. —3. paucis, sc. verbis, lineis, or paginis.—absolvam, sc. narrationem. So with Corte we would complete the ellipse. We cannot agree with those critics who seem inclined to do away with ellipses altogether.

V. 1. Genere, i. q. gente (see Liv. ii. 45, 46; Cic. Col. 5), sc. Sergiorum. The Sergii were an ancient patrician gens; for Virgil (Æn. v. 121) makes their Eponymus to have been Sergestus, one of the companions of Æneas. Like other gentes, they were divided into families, of which they had three, Fidenas, Plancus, Silus. There were several quæstors and some prætors of this gens; but it appears only in one instance in the consulate, namely, L. Fidenas, in A. U. 315 and 323, who was also censor, and who, as well as his sons M. and L., was more than once among the military tribunes cons. potest.: see Hist. of Rome, p. 108. The Catilina was apparently only a branch of the Silus

family. M. Silus, the proavus of L. Catilina, distinguished himself by his valour in the second Punic war (see Plin. Nat. Hist. vii. 28) and was prætor in 555? His son, M. Silus, was quæstor in 604. His son, the father of L. Catilina, seems to have attained to no office, and to have been very poor: see Q. Cicero de Pet. Cons. 2, who says of his son that he was natus in patris egestate, educatus in sororis stupris, corroboratus in cæde civium; cujus primus ad rempublicam aditus in equitibus Romanis occidendis fuit. For Sulla, whose party he had joined, had given him the command of some Gallic horsemen, who were to execute his ruthless -orders. On this occasion he murdered his own brother-in-law, Q. Cæcilius, and the prætor, M. Marius, with circumstances of great barbarity: Q. Cic. ut sup. Hist. of Rome, p. 351. It would appear that he was quæstor in 674, after which he was a legate in one of the provinces, where he distinguished himself by taking a town whose name is unknown, Fr. Hist. i. 26. He appears to have been one of the prætors in 685, for in 686 he governed the province of Africa as proprætor. In the following year he was prosecuted for extortion there (rer. repetund.) by the infamous P. Clodius, then a youth. He was, however, acquitted, for he bribed the prosecutor to prevaricate, i. e. betray the cause (de Har. Resp. 20), and also the jury to a great extent, for as Q. Cicero says, tam egens ex eo judicio discessit, quam quidam judices ejus ante illud judicium fecerunt. This, we may observe, was at the time when the jurors were only of the senatorian order: see Hist. of Rome, p. 361. He was defended by L. Torquatus, one of the consuls, and Cicero, to his discredit, had also some thoughts of doing the same: ib. p. 460. Next year (687) he stood for the consulate against Cicero. The rest of his history is told by Sallust.

Pravo. The original meaning of pravus is crooked, distorted, the opposite of rectus. Both terms are used figuratively of the mind; we ourselves speak of a crooked temper.-2. Huic, etc. Alluding to his conduct in the time of Sulla.—ibi, i. e. in his, a usual employment of adverbs of place.-4. cujus rei lubet. This is not a tmesis; for cujus and lubet are distinct words.—simulator ac dissimulator, sc. ille erat. The first means assuming another character, the second concealing one's own; but they are in effect the same, for one cannot be done without the other. Sallust, however, joins them in his usual manner: see Excursus I. 9.alieni appetens, i. e. avarus.—satis (i. e. multum : comp. viii. 2), sc. habebat.―eloquentiæ. Corte follows some MSS. which read lo

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