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Picenum along the Flaminian road to Ariminum, and then he took the Æmilian road, which led straight to Bologna, where we suppose Catilina to have meditated his descent from the mountains.-4. procul aberat, sc. ab agro Pistoriensi.— magno exercitu, i. e. though he had a large army.-locis, etc. He probably moved along the vales of the Arno and the Ombrone, while Catilina went through the hills.—expeditus. The baggage was, of course, left at Fæsulæ or some other place. Most MSS. read expeditos, which Gerlach adopts.-in fuga, sc. qui erant, i. e. fugientes, oi v pvyỹ? like oi iv Téλ. We are to recollect that the battle was fought near Pistoria, and it is not hinted that Catilina had retraced his steps.-5. montibus, etc., i. e. he was in the mountains, and there was an army at each side of them.-præsidü, i. e. subsidii, auxilii: comp. Iviii. 4.—cum Antonio. As he was the nearest, and as perhaps he had some hopes that he would not press him so hard as Metellus would.-quam primum, at once.-6. hujuscemodi, to this effect; for Sallust had no means of knowing what he really did say on this occasion. Sallust, who is little attentive to the minutiæ of chronology, does not give us any information as to the exact time of this engagement. From Dion (xxxvii. 39) we learn that it was at the beginning of the year 690; most probably in the month of January, as Cicero says (pro Sext. 5) that it was in hieme, and spring began V Id. (9th) Febr.: see Ov. Fast. 149 seq.

LVIII. 1. Virtutem, courage.—addere. It may not be useless to observe that addo is i. q. do, as give to i. q. give.—2. audacia, i.e. virtus, boldness, courage.—moribus, i. e. education, acquired habits. -hortere. Indef.—timor (sc.nam), etc. Animi may appear superfluous in this place, but it was the usage of the Romans, particularly of Sallust (comp. ii. 3; liii. 1; Jug. vii. 7 ; lvii. 5) to add animus to its qualities. Here, however, the sense is that the internal fear impedes the action of the external sense.-3. Sed, etc., i. e. my reason, etc., then is this.-causam, the reason.consili, i. e. of giving battle at once: see lvii. 5.—5. juxta mecum, as well as myself. This phrase occurs frequently in Plautus, but no where else that we can recollect.-6. ab urbe, on the side of the city.-animus ferat, sc. id facere. In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas, Ov. Met. i. 1.-9. tuta, secured.-abunde, sc. erit.-coloniæ, municipia: see Hist. of Rome, pp. 65, 82.— 10. metu, i.q. metui. Or it may be the abl.-11. necessitudo: see on xvii. 2.—impendet. Kritz sees a kind of zeugma here, as impendet does not properly apply to illis.—pro patria, i. e. to recover it, as we are now outlawed.—supervacaneum, etc., i. e. As they

have already all that we are seeking for, it is a mere work of supererogation in them, etc.—pro potentia, etc.: comp. xx. 7.— paucorum, τwv ỏλìíywv, the oligarchs.—12. memores, etc.: comp. Ix. 7; Jug. xlix. 2; Cæs. B. G. vii. 62. It seems to have been a usual formula. Here it may be chiefly addressed to the old soldiers comp. § 18.-13. vobis. Corte and Gerlach follow the majority of the MSS. in reading nobis. Vobis, i. e. most of you.turpitudine. Turpitudo, the opposite of honestas, is meanness, poverty.-exilio, i. e. place of exile: comp. xxxiv. 2.-alienas, etc., look for support from others, become poor mean dependents: comp. Jug. xiv. 7. Alienas opes, id quod miserrimum est, non expectat, Cic. pro Quinct. 15.-14. fœda, i. e. turpia.—hæc, i.e. arma, etc.-15. nemo, sc. nam.—17. qui, i. e. iis qui.—habetur, i. e. est : see on i. 4.—21. fortuna inviderit. IIãv rò Det̃ov plovnpóv, Herod. iii. 40. Ne hostes quidem sepulturæ in vident, Tac. Ann. i. 22. Africa solo oleum et vinum natura invidet, Plin. N. H. xv. 2: comp. Virg. Buc. vii. 58; Æn. iv. 234; viii. 509; xi. 269; Hor. Sat. i. 2, 100; ii. 6, 84.-cavete, sc. ne.—sicuti, etc. : comp. Liv. xxv. 17.


LIX. 1. Jubet, sc. tubicines: comp. Jug. xcix. 1.—instructos, in marching order; not in line of battle.—æquom, level.—remotis, Cæsar did the same on one occasion, B. G. i. 25.-animus, i. e. virtus, audacia.—pedes, on foot. Per medias Africæ solitudines, pedes duxit (Cato) exercitum, Sen. Ep. 104.-pro loco, according to the nature of the ground.-2. planities, i. e. locus æquus, § 1.—inter sinistros montis, within (on this side of) the hills on the left.-ab dextera, on the right: comp. lviii. 6.-rupis aspera, sc. erat. Corte and Gerlach read rupe, with the majority of the MSS.-reliqua signa, i. e. reliquas cohortes. It is thus that Kritz reads with Corte and seven MSS.; the rest have reliquorum, or -arum, which last is adopted by the other editors. Signa, vexilla, and aquila, are constantly used for the troops under them.-in subsidio, as a reserve.-artius, i. e. drawn up more closely; as they were not to extend beyond the front rank.-3. Ab his, out of these.-evocatos, i. e. the old soldiers, the veterans.—armatum, i. e. who had arms; see lvi. 3.-Fasulanum. Perhaps P. Furius : see 1. 4; Cic. Cat. iii. 6.—curare, to take charge, command: comp. Jug. xlvi. 7; lvii. 2; lx. 5.—libertis, sc. suis. These, of course, were men whom he had trained to desperation, and on whose attachment he could rely.-colonis, sc. Sullanis.-propter, i. e. prope: see on Virg. Buc. viii. 87. Vulcanus tenuit insulas propter Siciliam, Cic. N. D. iii. 22.—aquilam, etc.: see Cic.

Cat. i. 9.-4. pedibus æger. Probably from the gout. Dion. (xxxvii. 39) says it was only pretence.-M. Petreio. Kritz, Orelli, and others suppose this to be the same person with Pompeius' legate in Spain, who was beaten by Cæsar in 703 (Hist. of Rome, p. 425); but it is more probable that he was a different person, as we find that he had been already for thirty years an officer of rank.-5. tumulti. By this word was meant any sudden outbreak which took place in Italy. It was chiefly used of the Gauls who occupied its northern parts: see Cic. Phil. viii. 1.— conscripserat, i. e. by the directions of Antonius.-cernere, i. q. decernere.-6. Homo militaris, i. e. a man who had seen service and acquired experience: comp. xlv. 2.-præfectus, sc. equitum sociorum. It was a higher rank than that of tribune.―in exercitu, answering to our, in the army.


LX. 1. dat, i. e. dare facit.—idem facit, etc. If they did so, they would appear to have lost the advantage of their position. This may therefore be only an instance of Sallust's use of established forms.-2. a ferentaris. These were the light-armed troops which usually commenced the battle. Their principal weapon was the sling, and their usual place was on the wings: see Fest. s. v. Non. 12, 8; 18, 15; Veget. i. 20; ii. 2. Varro (L. L. vii. 57) speaks of ferentari equites in former times.-infestis, sc. contra hostes comp. Cæs. B. G. vii. 51. Infestus seems to be i. q. fertus, probably a part. of infero.—omittunt, i. e. do not use comp. Cæs. B. G. i. 52; vii. 88.-4. cum expeditis : see lix. 3. The usual sense of expeditus is, without baggage; but that is not its sense in this place.-accersere, bring up.-5. cohortem prætoriam, his body-guard. It consisted of picked men. It was the origin of the formidable prætorian cohorts of the Empire.-deinde, etc., i. e. when they had broken and routed the troops in front, they wheeled and attacked the flanks.—7. pristinæ dignitatis, i. e. his prætorship, etc.

LXI. 2. pugnando, for fighting, i. e. as his post in the line of battle.-3. medios, i. e. in the centre. This is a usual construction. Medium arripuit Servium, Liv. i. 48. Se... Aurea composuit sponda mediamque locavit, Virg. Æn. i. 698.—6. juxta : see on ii. 8.-8. Multi, sc. militum. Not the lixa, and such like. This of course took place on the following day.-9. lætitia, etc. We have shown (on xlviii. 1) that lætitia exceeds gaudium; the same is the relation between mæror and luctus. Luctus ægritudo ex ejus qui carus fuerit interitu acerbo. Mæror ægritudo flebilis, Cic. Tusc. iv. 8.





I. 1. genus humanum, mankind, i. e. man.—ævi brevis, gen. of quality comp. Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 97; Liv. xxviii. 37.—forte, i. e. fortuna : comp. xcii. 6; xciv. 7.—2. contra, on the contrary.—reputando, i. e. if you duly consider.-naturæ, púoɛwc, sc. suæ : see § 1.-industriam, the active exertions: see Cat. lii. 21.-deesse, sc. invenias.-3. Sed, de, now.—virtutis, i. e, the active powers of the mind see on Cat. i. 4.-grassatur, i. e. graditur. He uses the freq. for the simple verb in his usual manner.-pollens potensque : see Excursus I. 9: comp. Liv. i. 24; ii. 34.—quippe, etc. Most MSS. read quippe quæ, which Kritz adopts, and which is perhaps to be preferred. For this notion of the ancients see on Hor. Ep. i. 18, 111.—artis bonas: see on Cat. ii. 4.-4. captus, sc. homo, included in the preceding cuiquam.—ad, at, against. The metaphor (for there apparently is one) seems to be taken from a ship's going down by striking against a rock.—pessum datus est, he has gone to the bottom, i. e. has sunk totally. Pessum is, we think, clearly connected with Bubós, ßvooós, bottom.-naturæ, sc. suæ.— accusatur, sc. ab eo.—auctores, sc. quom sint ipsi.—negotia, i. e. res. A sense of the word familiar to our author.-5. Quodsi, i.e. ob quod si, for this reason, if.—multum, for the most part. An acc. abs. like plerumque, maximam partem, rò ñoλú, tò doiπóv.— regerentur, sc. casibus, i. e. forte, §1.-casus, i. e. the events of life; which appear for the most part to be fortuitous.—pro, instead of being.

II. 1. genus hominum, i. q. genus humanum, i. 1.—anima. The Romans made a distinction between animus and anima, regarding the latter as the principle of life, the former as the complex of the mental powers. But Sallust, as here, and some other writers,

seem to have used them indifferently..-res cuncta, sc. nostræ, in the following nostra.-2. præclara facies, i. e. personal beauty.3. fortunæ, i. e. divitiæ, etc.: see on Hor. Ep. i. 5, 12.—omnia, sc. ea.-dilabuntur, sc. sicuti corpus.-animus, sc. autem.—incorruptus, äp¤aproç, i. e. incapable of dissolution, the incorruptibilis of the Fathers of the Church. In imitation probably of the Greek verbal adjective in -τός, as αἱρετός, στρεπτός, etc., the Latins, especially Sallust, sometimes used the past part. as equivalent to an adj. in -bilis: comp. xliii. 5; lxxvi. 1 ; xci. 7; Cat. i. 4. Non exorato stant adamante viæ, Prop. iv. 11, 4. Mare scopulis inaccessum, Plin. Nat. Hist. xii. 14. It is in this sense that flexus is to be understood in Virg. Æn. v. 500. Such is perhaps its meaning also (though we have asserted the contrary in our Flor. Virg. p. 375) in Geor. iv. 123. In like manner if flexa in Geor. i. 169, be taken as flexible, i. e. capable of receiving a curvature, it may give a better sense to the passage.-humani generis: see § 1.—agit, actuates, rules, i. q. agito in Mens agitat molem, Virg. Æn. vi. 727.-habet, etc. The well-known Exw ovк Exoμaι of the Greeks.-4. pravitas, perversity see on Cat. v. 1.-per luxum, etc., i. e. luxu, etc.: comp. Cat. xx. 9.— ætatem agunt: see Cat. iv. 1.—incultu, want of cultivation : comp. Cat. lv. 4.-artes animi, i. e. mental pursuits.—claritudo, i. q. claritas. Words thus terminated are preferred by Sallust, and his follower Tacitus, on account of their fulness and their hue of antiquity.

III. 1. ex his, sc. artibus.-magistratus et imperia. Sallust generally uses these words as identical. We may here, perhaps, understand by the latter, military command.-postremo, in short: see on Cat. xv. 5.—omnis cura, etc., i. e. a seat in the senate, and such like.-hac tempestate, in these days, i. e. in the period between the death of Cæsar and that of the historian himself, who died in 718, four years before the battle of Actium. For these times see the last chapter of our Hist. of Rome.-virtuti. Abstract for concrete.-honos, i. e. office. Quo die novi magistratus inituri erant honorem, Liv. xlii. 22. Ita quæstor sum factus, ut mihi honorem illum non solum datum sed etiam creditum putem, Cic. Verr. ii. 5, 14.—per fraudem, i. e. fraudulenter, by illicit means.-is, sc. honos. This is the reading of several MSS. followed by Kritz and Orelli. The other editors follow those which read jus.―tuti, sc. magis. Kritz follows the great majority of MSS. in reading utique tuti.-honesti, i. q. honestati, i. e. honorati: see on Hor. Sat. i. 6, 96. He is, perhaps, alluding to

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