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Dolabella and others, who obtained the offices of the state after the death of Cæsar, but more probably he had M. Antonius chiefly in view.–2. vi, i. e. non legitime.-patriam, i. e. Italiam.parentes, i. e. the subjects, the provincials : see on Cat. vi. 5.possis. Indef.—et delicta, etc., i. e. punish evil-doers. Alluding perhaps again to Dolabella ; Hist. of Rome, p. 452.—importunum, unseasonable, i. e. evil. By litotes.-rerum, sc. publicarum.-portendant, announce and are surely followed by.—3. quærere, i. e. acquirere, obtain : comp. lxxxv. 30; lxxxvii. 2.-est, sc. actus. 4. nisi forte : see Cat. xx. 17.-quem, i. q. aliquem. Indef.-paucorum, i. e. probably the triumviri.-gratificari, i. e. gratificandi (a Hellenism), giving, making a present of.

IV. 1. negotiis, i. e. rebus : see on i. 4.-usui, utility, advantage.memoria, etc., i. e. the writing of history. As memoro is to relate, so memoria is relation.—2. prætereundum (sc. mihi), to pass over.-per insolentiam, i. e. insolenter, arrogantly ; or, perhaps, out of ignorance. It is not certain whether it applies to himself or to quis.-memet, etc. We adopt the punctuation and sense given by Corte. The late editors read memet studium ... extollere. Memet includes another me.

9:43. Atque, sc. vero.inertiæ, mere idleness.certe. With scornful irony.salutare plebem, sc. when looking for their votes : see Hor. Ep. i. 6, 49 seq.-conviviis. By this is generally understood the epule and viscerationes given to the people by ambitious men. doubt if convivium was ever used in that sense, and it may

here only mean private entertainments given to persons of influence, such as Cicero speaks of in his Epistles.-4. quibus ego, etc. He was a tribune of the people in 700, when his conduct did him no great credit, and he was made one of the prætors by Cæsar, not by the people, in 706 ; so that he has no very solid grounds for his boasting. We know not who the unsuccessful candidates were to whom he alludes.—et postea, etc. From his using the word postea, it would appear that he means those placed in the senate by M. Antonius, rather than those put into it by Cæsar (Hist. of Rome, p. 438).—merito, i. e. jure. Or rather meaning that it was an act for which he deserved praise.—otio. He uses this and the following negotis ironically.-5. Q. Marimum. Probably Fabius Maximus Cunctator, the opponent of Hannibal.P. Scipionem, sc. Africanum. Probably the elder. præterea, besides, i. e. et alios.-imagines, i. e. the waxen busts which they kept in the atria of their houses.-6. Scilicet is scire licet, it is plain. Kritz makes what follows to be the reflections of those.

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great men, not of the historian himself, with which we cannot agree.-eam flammam. Suggested by the preceding accendi.virtus, sc. sua.-eorum, sc. majorum.7. his, i. e. those of the present times.-quin, i. e. qui ne (non).—homines novi : see on Cat. xxiii. 6.-qui antea, etc. Alluding to Marius, and perhaps to Cicero.- furtim, i. e. ut fures, by stealth.—per latrocinia, i. e. ut latrones, by violence.nituntur, strive to obtain.-8. habeantur, i.e. sint : see on Cat. i. 4.-9. altius, further back. Perhaps referring to his mention of Maximus and Scipio.morum, sc. hoc tempore.redeo, I proceed: see Hor. Excursus IV. Thus ' Cicero says (ad Fam. xi. 14), Sed ut ad rem redeam, legionem Martiam et quartam negant ... ad te posse perduci, though he had not even hinted at it in the preceding part of his letter.

V. 1. Scripturus sum, I am going to write, i. e. I have undertaken to write. He seems here to have the introduction to Thucydides' history in his mind.—atrox, bloody: see on Cat. xxix. 2.-varia victoria, i. e. victory being sometimes on the one, sometimes on the other side.—superbiæ nobilitatis. This is i.q. superbis nobilibus, as appears from what follows. Superbia here signifies rather tyrannic insolence than our pride.obviam, etc., sc. a plebe. Obviam is ob vian, i. q. ad viam. Ob Romam noctu legiones ducere coepit, Enn. ap. Fest. v. 06.-2. quæ, etc., i. e. the contest which then began, in its progress, etc.-permiscuit, mixed through one another, i. e. threw into utter confusion.studis civilibus, i. e. the party-feuds.-bellum, etc., sc. solummodo. It is hard to say to what period he alludes particularly, probably to that of Sulla.—3. expedio, I relate. Agedum, hoc mihi expedi; primum unde habes istam vestem ? Ter. Eun. iv. 4, 17.pauca (sc. spatia?), etc. I will go back a little. Supra is here an adv.quo, by which, i. e. by my doing so.—ad cognoscendum, i. e. for the purpose of, with a view to, being understood.illustria, clear, aperto : see on Cat. xli. 1.–4. post magnitudinem, etc., i.e. postquam magni facti sunt Romani.

This mode of expression seems to have been first used by Sallust.-nominis Romani. Like nomen Latinum, etc.—Masinissa, etc. : see Hist. of Rome, p. 241. --virtute : see on i. 1.-multa, etc. : see Hist. of Rome, p. 245 seq.-magnum, adj. for adv., as in Greek; like multum, commodum, falsum, etc.manu, i. e. pugnando : comp. Cat. vii. 7.–5. Sed, , now.imperi, etc., i. e. he reigned as long as he lived, rupavvūv tòv Biov dietélete, Isocr. Archid. 18. The different fate of Syphax may have suggested this observation. Corte is quite mistaken when he says, that it means that the Romans resumed

their grants after his death.—6. obtinuit, held, possessed. It is the proper term.-Micipsa : see Excursus IV.-regnum. As this word is so generally rendered by our kingdom, and is, like it, usually supposed to signify the country ruled over by a king, it may be as well to remind the reader of its original and proper signification. Regnum, then, is the condition, power, and authority of a rex, his royalty or regality (comp. x. 1), the Baotleia of the Greeks, our kingdom in its original sense (like princedom, dukedom), as when, in the Lord's Prayer, we render £détw ý Baouleia oou, thy kingdom come.7. dereliquerat (intensive), had left totally.-privatum, sc. regno. The proper sense of privo is to separate : see on Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 11.-cultu : see on Cat. xlviii. 2.-domi, i. e. in domo sua, apud se.

VI. 1. Validus, i. e. valens : see Virg. Excursus II.-luxu, i.q. luxui, a dat. : comp. xvi. 3; xxxix. 2. Usu et adjumento fuisse, Cic. ad Fam. xiii. 71. Ne minimo quidem casu locum relinqui debuisse, Cæs. Bell. Gall. vi. 42. Quod nec concubitu indulgeat, Virg. Geor. iv. 198.—æqualibus, sc. ætate.-quom, i. e. quamquam: comp. Cat. xxxvi. 4.–2. lætus, i. q. lætatus. exacta . . . liberis, abl. abs. Exacta, i.e. ad finem perducta.crescere, sc. gloria.negotio : see on i. 4.-cum animo. This is a favourite form with our author instead of in animo: comp. Plaut. Trin. ii. 1, 24. It is like the site após òv Ovuóv of Homer.-3. suæ, etc., i. e. quam dabat sua, etc.—mediocris, i. e. modestos, moderatos. A perfectly unusual sense of the word : comp. viii. 1. — transvorsos, out of their course.

It seems to be a figure taken from navigation.anxius erat, i.e. valde timebat.

VII. 1. Per vim, etc. : see on v. 4.-popularibus : see on Cat. xxii. 1.-2. bello, etc. : see Hist. of Rome, p. 284.—ostentando, by displaying, i.e. by the desire of displaying.-sævitia, i.e. ferocia, the exceeding courage. Et sævum Ænean agnovit Turnus in arnis, Virg. Æn. xi. 910.–4. naturam, character.-morem, sc. pugnandi.modestissume, i. e. without the least arrogance or presumption.-5. quorum alterum, of which the latter.-providentia, foresight, anticipation. - 6. quippe cujus: comp. Cat. xlviii. 2.--frustra erat, i.e. failed. It is a favourite expression with Sallust.-7. sollertia, acuteness.

VIII. 1. exercitu, sc. illo, i. e. the army in Spain.--Novi : see on Cat. xxiii. 6.-nobiles, i.e. those who had images, as opposed to the novi, men of family.—bono, etc., i. e. rõ kalokåyadiq.factiosi, party-men : see on Cat. liv. 5.-domi, i. e. at Rome.apud socios, i.e. in the provinces : see on Cat. xii. 5.clari, etc.


i.e. distinguished, rather than respectable.—non mediocrem : see on vi. 3. It is a litotes.-in ipso, sc. nam.-2. magnifice, in high terms : see on Cat. ix. 2.-pro concione, èv Ts évka noia, before, in the presence of, the assembled troops.prætorium. The general's tent or quarters. Prætor, i. e. Pre-itor, was the original term for consul : see Hist. of Rome, pp. 58, 97. In the early days of the republic, and on ordinary occasions, the armies were commanded by the prætors (i.e. consuls) alone.-publice, etc., i. e. by rendering services to the state, rather than by bribing men of influence.-quibus, i.e. aliquibus. Indef.- periculose, sc. nam.quod, etc., i.e. the succession to the kingdom, which only the Roman senate and people could give.-suis artibus : see vii. 4.illi, i. e. ei: comp. cxi. 1.-regnum, a kingdom, royalty. Scipio could hardly mean that he would be appointed to succeed Micipsa. Venturum, we think, is hypothetic, would probably come.---sin, etc., but if he made too much haste, i.e. had recourse to private bribery, and other indirect arts.—suamet, etc. : comp. Cat. xx. 6.

IX. 1. Earum, etc., i. e. They were to this effect : comp. § 4. Cat. xxxii. 3.-2. Nobis, i.e. mihi.-gratulor, sc. eum talem

Corte says that gratulor is i. q. gratum habeo, but he is wrong.- En habes, you have in fact : see on Virg. Buc. i. 68.3. gratia, sc. apud Romanos.-viri, i. e. Jugurthæ.-statim. This word is used with the uzual latitude of words relating to time ; for as Numantia was taken in 619, and Micipsa died in 634, and the adoption of Jugurtha took place within the last three years of his reign (xi. 6), statim represents a space of time of at least twelve years.-4. paucos, etc., i. e. after the time of his adoption of Jugurtha.—verba habuisse, to have spoken : comp. Cat. xxxi. 6; xli. 2. It is used chiefly of formal regular speaking. Quibus omnibus verbis quæ a me tunc sunt habita si dolor abfuisset meus ... . irridenda fuisset oratio mea, Cic. de Or. ii. 47.

X. 1. Regnum. This seems to us to be a plain reference to v. 7. The critics, however, say that it refers to the adoption, and that Micipsa pretends that such had been his intention from the very first.—accepi, I took. Like addo (see on Cat. lviii. 1) it has the meaning of the simple verb, with the addition of the præp.falsum habuit. This is stronger than fefellit, and Sallust is fond of thus using habeo. Falsum we need not say is the past part. of fallo. —2. novissume, i.e. last of all ; see on xix. 7 ; i. e. after, or beside, those egregia facta, in Numidia, before he went to Spain.rediens, etc., i.e. Numantiæ unde rediisti. We do not think that the sense will allow us, with Gerlach, to make rediens i. q. quom rediisses, or i. q. quom redires with Kritz. In all the examples which he gives the effect follows the verb of motion, while here it evidently precedes, for it was while in Spain that the effect had been produced by Jugurtha.nomen, etc. Because Masinissa also had served there : Hist. of Rome, p. 222.-3. per hanc dexteram, sc. tuam quam teneo. Hæc per dexteram tuam, te dextera retinens manu, Obsecro, Plaut. Capt. ii. 3, 82: comp. Ter. And. i. 5,55; Virg. Æn.iv.314.- per regni fidem, by the honour of a king, i.e. the feeling of honour which royalty should give.-moneo, I urge : comp. xxx. 2. The preceding adjuration properly refers to obtestor alone.—4. Non, sc. nam.-officio (sc. solummodo), by kindness and attentions.—6. parvæ res, sc. publicæ.-7. ante hos, before, rather than, these : comp. Cat. liii. 3.- sapientia, i.e. knowledge and experience.-providere, i. e. to take care ; as one can do who foresees.-opulentior, i. e. qui plus habet opum : see on Cat. vi. 3.-8. colite, observate. These verbs, as Corte has shown, are thus frequently joined by Cicero. They have nearly the same meaning (see Cic. Inv. ii. 22), and answer to our, cultivate the friendship of.-talem, i.e. tam præclarum.-ne, i.e. ut non.

XI. 1. Ficta locutum, i. e. said what was not strictly true, as to the love he bore him, etc. : see vi. vii.—aliter, i. e. alias res.-pro tempore, i. e. as suited the occasion.—benigne, i.e. in terms of gratitude and affection.—2. illi, dat.-reguli. This word is, we believe, first used by Sallust, and whether as a dim. or as i. q. reges, we cannot say. It appears to us that ulus and culus were originally not diminutives, but, on the contrary, merely some of the luxuriant terminations of the Latin language : see Hist. of Rome, p. 4, note. Thus servus and servulus, nummus and nummulus, Pænus and Poenulus, mulier and muliercula, are equivalent in the comic poets; and probably Catulus was catus, Lentulus lentus, Poplicula publicus. So the Regulus of the Atilii may have been the same as the Rex of the Marcii, and Remus and Romulus have been only different forms of the same name. -in unum : see on Cat. xvii. 2.-3. minumus, sc. natu. Sextus filius ejus,qui minimus ex tribus erat, Liv. i. 53: comp. Hor. Ep. i. 2, 1; A. P. 366. - ignobilitatem, etc. : see v. 7. dextera (sc. parte), etc. The meaning seems to be that Adherbal took his seat the first, and that then Hiempsal sat down on his right hand, so that Jugurtha must, of necessity, sit on his left. But still we do not see how Jugurtha could take the middle seat unless the three seats were placed in a certain order, and he was

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