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zeugma.-deprecati sunt, sc. iram senatus, or pænam ejus. Quintum patrem audio profectum in Asiam ut deprecaretur, sc. iram Cæsaris, Cic. ad Att. xi. 6.--5. solet. As the senate and people were regarded as the one political body.-gratiam facit, i.e. veniam dat : comp. Cat. lii. 8.

CV. 1. cujus arbitratu, i. e. who being made a plenipotentiary, having full powers.-2. velitaribus armis, i. e. those of the velites which were a parma, a Spanish sword, and some light darts : see Liv. xxxviii. 21.-3. non amplius, these words are parenthetic and epexegetic.-temere, without any

order.-ampliorem vero, sc. parere.hostilem metum : see on xli. 2.-4. intendere, sc. in hostes. Super lectum stans ferro intento, Liv. vii. 5.

CVI. 1. Adpellat, addresses : see Cat. xvii. 1.-3. feroci, i.e. intrepido: see on Cat. xi. 5.—credere, sc. ait, included in negat. - quam parceret. This is no uncommon construction. Perpessus est omnia potius quam conscios delendæ tyrannidos indicaret, Cic. Tusc. ii. 22.-4. cænatos esse. The passive of cæno, is used here as a deponent. The part. alone is often used in that sense.-6. manu vindicandum, i. e. that he should be put to death : see xx. 4.-apud illum, i. e. in him : comp. xxiv. 10.

CVII. 1. prohibet, protects. A quo periculo prohibete rem publicam, Cic. pro Leg. Man. 19.—in maxumo metu, sc. esse, i.e. exposing one's self to the greatest danger. Mwpòv ydp kpateīv βουλομένους τα τυφλά του σώματος και άοπλα και άχειρα ταύτα εναντία τάττειν τοϊς πολεμίοις φεύγοντας, Χen. Cyrop. iii. 3. -nudum, i. e. inermem.

As a man has no eyes behind. -3. ne, i.e. ut non.videlicet, of course, as was plain.-suum, i.e. illorum.4. haberet, sc. Jugurtha.6. ut in tali negotio, i.e. as things then were, since nothing better could be done.--quia, etc. The reason why he did not attack them.—7. perventum est, sc. ab iżs.

CVIII. 1. Orator, i. e. legatus. Qui verba orationum haberet publice advorsus eum quo legabatur, ab oratione orator dictus, Varro L.L. vii. 41. Orator sine pace redit regique refert rem, Ennius ap. eund. ibid. C. Fabricius ad Pyrrhum de captivis recuperandis missus orator, Cic. de Clar. Orat. 14 : comp. Liv. i. 15; ix. 43, 45 ; xxx. 16; Virg. Æn. vii. 153 ; viii. 505 ; xi. 100, 331.-speculatum : see Excursus I. 11.-Dabar. It would appear that his father, Massugrada, was a son of Masinissa by one of his concubines. Dabar was, therefore, half-cousin to Jugurtha, and to the sons of Micipsa.-gente, family, decendants,



We have met no other instance of this restricted use of the term gens.carus, etc. : comp. Ixx. 2.---fidum, i.e. relied on, trusted.—2. tempus, sc. diei.consulta (sc.antea), etc., i. e. he was ready to perform all that he had previously agreed on with him.quo. There is an evident lacuna in this place. Kritz thinks that remoto has dropt out. Gronovius and Gerlach would read quin, Orelli



quo. It appears to us that something also is wanting before quo. The conjecture of Kritz may receive confirmation from the following passage : Excedere omnes jussit de cubiculo quo licentius, remotis arbitris, indicium perageret, Val. Max. v. 4, 3. Orelli takes licentius to be i. q. laxius et negligentius, sc. quam Sulla vellet. But this is, we believe, an unauthorised sense of the word.—nequivisse, i.q. nequire, by the poetic enallage. Kritz, however, says that the past inf. is used “ quia non ipsam cautionem adhuc faciendam, sed initum vel captum consilium cavendi respicit.”—3. conperior, i. e. have ascertained.—Punica fide. This had become a proverbial expression, to denote saying one thing and thinking another.-ob ea, i. e. for those reasons.-prædicabat : see on Cat. xlviii. 9.Numidam, i. e. Jugurtham. It is to him that the spe pacis properly applies.-adtinuisse, i.e. ad, apud se tenuisse, to have held in hand, as we say.

CIX. 1. Igitur, to proceed then : comp. ci. 1.— responderentur, sc. a Boccho.-3. præceptum fuerat, sc. ei a Sulla.-ac, sc. ait.ambo, i. e. Bocchus and Sulla ; not Sulla and Aspar, as Corte absurdly supposes. Aspar, however, though he is not mentioned, was probably present.—4. internuntius : see cviii. 2. The want of the article is felt here.-sanctus, upright : see on lxxxv. 40.

:-ex sententia (sc. animi : see lxxxv. 27), agreeable to, to the mind of. Nec quemquam fideliorem ... potes mittere ad eum, nec qui magis sit servos ex sententia, Plaut. Capt. ii. 2, 96.

cx. 1. Numquam, etc. This is a very artificial speech, and does not appear to us to be at all like what Bocchus might have said. What kings, for example, could he ever have known of but those of Numidia, and to whom but Jugurtha could he have rendered assistance ?3. inminutum, sc. esse.fuerit (fut. perf.), it will have been, i. e. it is the case. The nom. is eguisse, etc. Fuerit delere Saguntum, Exæquare Alpes, imponere vincula sacro Eridano, fædare lacus etiamne parabit, etc., Sil. Ital. xii. 695.4. licet, sc. tibi.-animo, sc. tuo. — 5. re publica, public affairs. vostra, i. e. of you Romans. — curator. This is an unusual


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employment of this word.-6. fines meos, etc. He still pretends that a part of Numidia belonged to him : see cii. 13.—7. Id, i.e. tutari fines.-8. intrare, etc., i. e. inter regnum, etc.non egrediar, etc. As he had used flumen, in the sense of fines, he employs the verbs properly belonging to this last word.

CXI. 1. pro se, i. e. with respect to himself and the compliments to him, etc.-modice, i. e. modeste.-multis, sc. gratiam, i. e. as a ground of favour.-faciundum, sc. igitur.-—illo

The subst. (whether re, causa, or whatever other) that is understood with sua is also to be understood here : see Zumpt, § 449. Kritz has endeavoured to show that Zumpt is mistaken when he asserts, that “the thing which is of interest or importance is not expressed by a subst.," as it is sometimes joined with the nom. of the pron. or subst. But Zumpt, at least in his last edition, says expressly that it is joined with the former, and of the two examples of the latter which Kritz gives, he quotes one (non quo mea interesset loci natura, Cic. ad Att. iii. 19), observing that it “is very singular.” The other is, Plurimum refert soli cujusque ratio, Plin. Nat. Hist. xviii. promptu, i. e. facile. Nec tibi quadrupedes animosos ignibus illis

In promptu regere est, Ov. Met. ii. 84. The proper meaning of in promptu is, apparent, plain, what has, as it were, been brought out and exposed : comp. Cat. vii. 1.-Jugurtha, sc. capiundi ? There is no instance, we believe, unless this be one, of copiam habere taking after it a gen. of the person without a part. expressed or understood.-2. cognationem, sc. esse. The affinity has been already mentioned (lxxx. 6), but nothing appears respecting the kindred.-3. sæpius, i. e. over and over again. It all took place at the one interview.—4. ad simulandam, i. e. giving Jugurtha hopes of obtaining it.

CXII. 1. adpellat, speaks to.-condicionibus, on terms. Not an unconditional surrender, as had hitherto been required. poni, i. e. deponi or componi. Cicero also sometimes uses the simple for the compound of this verb, as tunicam ponere, Tusc. v.. 20; ponere vitia, Or. iii. 12 ; cândide ponere inimicitias, ad Fam. viii. 6.-2. venit, goes.

The verb venio is often thus used for eo : the Italians use their verb venire in the same way. A populo clamor ad astra venit, Ov. Fast. iii. 374. Romamne venio, an hic maneo, an Arpinum fugio Cic. ad Att. xvi. 8. Nullam a me epistolam ad te sino .... pervenire, Id. ib. i. 19. Our doubt of the correctness of venire a me (on Hor. Ep. ii. 2, 22) was therefore unfounded.--sæpe, sc. nam.-pacem conventam: see

i. e.

xxxviii. 10.—3. in potestatem : sce on Cat. xix. 3.-non, etc. The construction here is embarrassed ; it should be, qui non sua, etc., in hostium potestatem venisset.sua ignavia, i. e. his own misconduct or imprudence.

CXIII. 1. volvens : see vi. 2.-voluntates, inclinations, intentions.—2. habere, i. e. fractare : see on Cat. xi. 5.-3. voltu corporis. A Sallustian expression ; like timor animi, etc.quæ, quas res, i. e. his summoning and then sending away his friends, his changes of countenance, etc., indicated the secret perturbation of his mind.—4. insidias tendit, i. e. fixes on the place where they should go to meet Jugurtha, and on the mode of placing the soldiers in concealment near it.-7. Jugurtha Sulle, etc. Sulla was so proud of the address with which he managed this affair, that he made it the subject of the engraving of his sealring, Plin. xxxviii. 1 ; Val. Max. viii. 15.

CXIV. 1. Per idem tempus, etc. : see Hist. of Rome, p. 323. -Gallos. They were properly Germans, but as the Gauls were the first people beyond the Alps with whom the Romans were acquainted, they long continued to give that name to all the Transalpine peoples. It was thus that the Greeks called the subjects of Darius and Xerxes Medes.—2. Illi, sc. Romani. Kritz has placed in the text ibi, a conjecture.-habuere, sc. pro certo ? Majores nostri sic habuerunt, et ita in legibus posuerunt, etc., Cat. R. R. præf.-prona, i. e. facilia : see lxxx. 4. -3. Kalendis, etc., i. e. the day he entered on his consulate. For the fate of Jugurtha see Hist. of Rome, p. 322.



Cat. I. 1.

Language and Style of Sallust. The following peculiarities may, we think, be observed in the writings of Sallust. We call them such, not as meaning that they are only to be found in him, but that they are very numerous in his works, as compared with those of Cicero, Cæsar, Varro, and Nepos, the only Latin prose-writers on whom, as his predecessors or contemporaries, he could not have exerted any influence, as he has done to a great extent on Livy, and still more on Tacitus.

1. We will first notice his lavish employment of the historic, or, as Wagner chooses to term it, the absolute, intinitive. It may be here observed that Virgil, who among the poets is distinguished, like Sallust among the historians, by a fondness for unusual words and constructions, is, as we shall see, the only poet that uses it to any extent.

Wagner (Quæst. Virg. xxx.) thus explains this form, which is peculiar to the Latin language in narrative, the Hebrew, Greek, and Italian using the inf, only as an imperative,

Verbo nondum per Tempora Modosque digesto, solo utebantur Infinitivo ; quæ ratio loquendi ut est balbutientis infantiæ, ita hodieque invenitur apud populos quosdam rudes et barbaros ; retenta interdum illa quidem etiam a cultioribus populis, nec in concitatione solum, sed etiam in sedata oratione.” This, it will easily be seen, is nothing but pure assertion, and we believe inquiry would give an opposite result. Surely, if it was the case, we might expect to find some vestiges of it in Homer. Aristophanes does not even put it into the mouth of his Scythian rošórns, and the negroes in the French and Spanish islands, as far as we are aware, show no predilection for the infinitive mood. If this had been the case in Italy, we should have expected to find it most employed by the earlier writers, but it occurs only rarely in Plautus and Terence, never in the fragments of historians or poets, and never in Lucretius or Catullus.

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