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(2) Of tJic Flexional Pronoun-Adverbs.

515. Under this head come such old familiar forms as here, there, where, when, then, hence, whence, how, why, hither, whither, which are ancient flexional forms that sprang from pronouns of the substantival and adjectival classes. The tracing of some of these to their origin is a matter of obscure antiquity: others are clear; but the enquiry belongs rather to Saxon than to English philology.

If we search back into the growth of these, we shall find that they are old cases, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative. For instance, why is an old ablative; and so also is the, when we say 'so much the better,' like the Latin eo. This is among the demonstratives what why is among the relatives, and its old form is thi or thj>, 487.

But these Cases are now obscure, and the only adverbial inflection that is still manifest is the genitive; as always, else A. S. elles, e/lsoones Sp, hereabouts, inwards, once, othergates Sh, outwards, since, thereabouts, towards, whereabouts.

anis = once.

Consider it warily, read aftiner than anis,
Well at ane blink sly poetry not tane is.

Gawin Douglas.

sonderlypes = severally.

Were he neuere of so hey parage,
Wold he, ne wolde, pat scholde he do,
Oper pe dep schold he go to.
pus sonderlypes he dide pern swere,
Tyl Argayl schulde pey faip bere.

R. Brunne's Chronicle, 3876.

516. Space will not permit us to unravel the history of each of these words, and we must pass lightly on to a group of composite pronoun-adverbs, in which Flexion is aided by a preposition, as if forming a link of transition between these adverbs and those of the third section:—hereabout, hereafter, hereal, herebefore, hereby, herein, hereinbefore, hereinto, hereof, hereon, hereout, hereto, heretofore, hereunder, hereunto, hereupon, herewith, herewithal; thereabout, thereabouts, thereafter, thereafterward H. Coleridge Glossary, thereagainst Id., thereat, thereby, therefore, therefrom, therehence Coleridge, therein, thereinto, thereof, thereon, thereout, thereover Coleridge, therethrough Id., thereto, thereunto, thereupon, therewith, therewithal, therewilhout Coleridge; whereabout, whereabouts, whereas, whereat, whereby, wherefore, wherein, whereinto, whereof, whereon, wherethrough Wisdom xix. 8, whereto, whereunto, whereupon, wherewith, wherewithal.

These Composites might be presented in the form of a Declension, with a Nominative as true to history as the English can provide :—


Thereof"is used interchangeably with of it in Lev. xiv. 45; 1 Kings vii. 27. These adverbs, so far as they are now used, are more highly symbolical than they once were. In the following stave of the twelfth century we have thereby in the physical sense of by that place:—

Merie sungen Se muneches binnen Ely,

Da Cnut ching rew fterby:

RowefS cnites near "Se lant,

And here we 'Ses muneches sang.

Merry sang the monks in Ely,
A s king Canute rowed thereby:
Row, boys, nigher the land,
And hear we these monks' song.

(3) Of the Phrasal Pronoun-Adverbs.

517. As the flexional character becomes obscure, and the flexional signification is forgotten, symbolic words are called in to supplement the enfeebled case-ending. Thus whence gets the larger formula, from whence, as Genesis iii. 23 :—

Miles Cover dale, 1535. 1611.

The Lorde God put him out of Therefore the Lord God sent him the garden of Eden, to tyll y9 earth, foorth from the garden of Eden, to whence he was taken. till the ground, from whence he was


The next step is that the inflection is dispensed with, and the preposition only is used, and so we get the complete phrasal adverb.

To this class belong all such adverbial phrases as these: at all, at once, after all, of course, in a way, in a fashion, in a manner, in a sort of way, in some sort, after a sort, at most, at least, to the uttermost.

at next.

When bale is att hyest, boote is att next.

Sir Aldingar, 117.

518. Some of these naturally develope with peculiar luxuriance after negative verbs and as a complement to the negation:—

Whereas in deede it toucheth not monkerie, nor maketh anything at all for any such matter.—Hugh Latimer, The Plougkers, 1549.

not at all.

Not at all considering the power of God, but puffed vp with his ten thousand footmen, and his thousand horsemen, and his fourscore elephants.— 2 Maccabees xi. 4.

at no hand.

And in what sort did these assemble? In the trust of ther own knowledge, or of their sharpenesse of wit, or deepenesse of iudgment, as it were in an arme of flesh? At no hand. They trusted in him that hath the key of Dauid, opening and no man shutting; they prayed to the Lord.—The Translators to the Reader, 1611.

Some of the phrasal adverbs have assumed the form of single words, by that symphytism which naturally attaches these light elements to each other. Hence the forms withal, whatever, nevertheless, notwithstanding, likewise for 'in like wise.'


Not rendring euill for euill, or railing for railing: but contrarywise blessing.—1 Peter iii. 9.

at leastwise.

And every effect doth after a sort contain, at leastwise resemble, the cause from which it proceedeth.—Richard Hooker, Of the Laws &c. I. v. 2; also id. II. iv. 3.

Upside-down is an adverb that has been altered by a false light from up-so-down, or, as Wiclif has it, up-se-down, wherein so or se is the old relative, 471, and the expression is equivalent to up-what-down.

He is traitour to God & turneb be chirche upsedown.—John Wiclif, Three Treatises, ed. J. H. Todd, Dublin, 1851, p. 29.

Thus es this worlde torned up-so-downe.

Halliwell, v. Upsodoun.

which way, that way.

Marke which way sits the Wether-cocke,
And that way blows the wind.

Ballad Society, vol. i. p. 344.

519. The progress of modern languages, turning as it does in great measure upon the development of the symbolic element, naturally sets towards the production of grouped expressions, and this displays itself with particular activity in the adverbial parts of language, whether they be presentively or symbolically adverbial, that is to say, whether the nounal or the pronounal character is prevalent. For the tendency of novelty is to show itself prominently in the adverbs of either category, much on the same principle as the extremities of a tree are the first to display the newest movements of growth. The adverbs are the tips or extremities of all that is material in speech.

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