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Such are the following, of which the less common are marked with the initials of Milton or Tennyson :arrow-wounded (T)
meek-eyed (M) broad-shouldered
neat-handed (M) cross-barred (M)
open-hearted deep-throated (M)
pure-eyed (M) eagle-eyed (M)
royal-towered (M) far-fetched
self-involved (T) golden-shafted (T)
thick-leaved (T) high-toned
vermeil-tinctured (M) icy-pearled (M)
white-handed (M) large-moulded (T)
yellow-ringleted (T) I was bred a blacksmith, and knew my art as well as e'er a blackthumb'd, leathern-apron'd, swart-faced knave of that noble mystery.Walter Scott, Kenilworth, xi.
608. This group of compounds is seen in its highest perfection in the Greek language, and the authors who have used this form of speech with the greatest effect and in the most opposite ways are Æschylus and Aristophanes. What was a trumpet to the former was employed as a bauble by the latter. Our modern poets are great performers upon this instrument. Keats handled it very effectively. In his Endymion we read of yellow-girted bees'; also subtlecadenced 219;
Of planets all were in the blue again. Mr. Robert Browning has elf-needled, fairy-cupped, fruitshaped, honey-coloured,
609. In such instances the inflection reacts on the whole compound with a consolidating force. Several words may thus be strung together. When the last member of a linked composite has an inflection, it seems to shoot back pervadingly through the others, locking the whole together with a bolt of coherence. We do not use this power so freely as the Germans do. Where we read “O thou of little faith' in Matthew xiv. 31, Luther has a du Kleingläubiger. Richard Rothe said of his student life at Heidelberg, that it was ein poetisch-religiös-wissenchaftliches Idyll,
In the following quotation, though it is not so printed, yet the word old is a member of the compound and a partner in the services of the termination :
old friend-ish-ness. The author having settled within himself the most direct mode of securing the ear of his readers, throws himself upon their favour with an air of trustfulness and old friend-ish-ness, which cannot fail to secure him welcome and audience.- Quarterly Review, vol. cxxviii. p. 545.
Here also seem to belong those instances in which the last member is a present participle, governing the first part of the compound:
As a tool-and-weapon-using being, man stands alone. — E. T. Stevens, Flint Chips, Preface.
Thinks on the happy fields he may not see,
With sunlight on the lea.
Horace Smith, Alma Mater, 1860. 610. The Compounds of the First and Second Orders are for the most part the offspring of an early and undeveloped Syntax. They are the natural instruments for saying a great deal in brief compass, and with all the entailed consequences of inexplicitness. Among these consequences
may be reckoned advantages as well as disadvantages. It is sometimes a disadvantage that the meaning is clouded, but then this turns to advantage in certain aspects, as when illusion is sought by the poet. Thus,
- sea-path sunset-paved ;
Aubrey de Vere, Legends of Saint Patrick, 1872; p. 48. As an example of the uncertainty attending on compounds we may cite the famous Greek compound in Luke vi. I, which literally rendered in English is 'secondfirst. Our version gives it “second sabbath after the first'; another explanation is second of the principal sabbaths,' and a third ‘first sabbath after the second day of the Passover. So this compound 'second-first' has suggested three distinct interpretations :-second after first, second among first, first after second. This will serve to indicate the liability of compounds to vagueness.
The logical faculty loves an explicit syntax, but the imagination has an affection for compounds, and especially for those of the first and second order. That logical language, the French, is stronger in syntax than in compounds, as it is also more excellent in prose than in poetry.
3. COMPOUNDS OF THE THIRD ORDER. ' 611. Here belong all those compounds which are formed by an accentual union of phrases wherein the syntactical connection is entirely or mainly symbolic. There was a mediæval English expression for vain regret, which was made up of the words had I wist,' that is to say, 'Oh, if I had only known what the consequence would be.' It was variously written, and the variations depend on the degree of accentual intensification :
Babees Book (E.E.T. S.), p. 15.
The chief symbol which threads together the Compounds of this Order is the preposition of, as coat-of-arms, willo'-the-wisp, cal-o'-nine-tails, man-of-war, light-o'-love, ticketof-leave.
The distinction between compounds and constructs is a delicate one, so much so that two persons of like birth and education may be found to differ upon it. When however we see the of abraded to o', or when we hear it in speech, as we often hear man-oʻ-war, then there is no doubt of the compound state of that expression.
612. This class of compounds is essentially French, and it is from our neighbours that we have caught the art of making them. Thus, we say after them :
But the instances in which we make use of it are far less numerous than those in which we keep to our natural compound, that of the First Order. It is only necessary to offer a few examples by which it will appear how very far we are from overtaking the French in the use of their compound:chef-d'oeuvre
master-piece maison-de-campagne country-house chemin-de-fer
rail-road bonnet-de-nuit night-cap
poppy-head culottes-de-peluche plush-breeches
Bureau-de-Poste P ost-Office. And if we are slow to accept their compounds with de, still less do we concern ourselves to imitate those which they so readily make with other prepositions; asarc-en-ciel
rain-bow verre à vin
wine-glass manche à balai broom-stick. So strong is our preference for our own old hereditary compound, that even where we substantially adopt a French compound, we alter it to the world-old form, as in the case of coup-de-Bourse, which in the following newspaper-cutting is turned into
Exchange-stroke. Secretary Boutwell was in New York almost on the eve of the outbreak. He was aware, as indeed the whole city was, that a conspiracy was brewing --that what we might call an 'Exchange stroke' was contemplated.
The Americans outstrip us in converting these French compounds of the Third Order into English compounds of the First Order. Thus we say point of view, after the French point de vue ; but in American literature we meet with
view-point. The inmates of the Eureka House, from a social view-point, were not attractive.-Bret Harte, A Lonely Ride.
613. The transition from the construct to the compound state is a slight and delicate thing, but it takes time to accomplish. The symbolic syntax has produced few as yet; the flexional syntax has produced far more, for the compounds of the second order have been greatly fostered by the study of Greek. But the great shoal of English compounds is derived from the eldest form of syntax, and they have their roots in a time immeasurably old. They claim kindred with