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Titus Livius was born at Patavium, the modern Padua, a town in Cisalpine Gaul, B.C. 59. He appears to have gone up to Rome when quite a youth, and after living there for many years he returned to his native town, where he died at the age of 76, in the fourth year of the reign of Tiberius, A.D. 17, the same year in which P. Ovidius Naso also died. His literary talents attracted the notice of Augustus, who became his patron. Strange though it may- seem, this is really all we know of the personal history, of so illustrious a historian as Titus Livius, although in the absence of authentic information, tradition and the partiality of the learned have attributed many sayings and doings to him of which he was doubtless entirely innocent. In the year A.D. 1360, the town of Padua was thrown into great excitement by the accidental discovery, within the monastery of St. Justina, (on the site of an ancient Temple of Jupiter,) of a tablet with this inscription, V. F. T. Livivs. LIVIÆ. T. F. QVARTÆ. L. HALYS. CONCORDIALIS. PATAVI. SIBI. ET. SVIS. OMNIBVS. The worthy citizens unanimously agreed that this referred to the great Titus Livius, and when in the next century an ancient skeleton was discovered in the same monastery, they fondly believed that they had the veritable remains of

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their world-renowned countryman. But their delusion was roughly dispelled when it was satisfactorily established that the monument was one of Titus Livius Halys, freedman of Livia, fourth daughter of a Titus Livius. The history of Livius extended from the foundation of the city to the death of Drusus, B.c. 9, and was comprised in 142 books, of which only 35 are now extant, although there are a few fragmentary Epitomes of those that have been lost. Some have thought that the work was divided into Decades, containing ten books each, of which we now possess entire the first, third, fourth, and half the fifth. “The style of Livius is clear, animated, and eloquent: but he did not take much pains in ascertaining the truth of the events he records. His aim was to offer to his countrymen a clear and pleasing narrative, which, while it gratified their vanity, should contain no startling improbabilities nor gross perversion of facts."


B.C. 217-216.

I-VII. Hannibal leaves his winter quarters in Cisalpine Gaul, crosses the Apennines, ravages Etruria, and advances as far as Lake Trasimenus, where he completely defeats the Roman army under the consul C. Flaminius. VIII-X. C. Centenius, the proprætor, sent with reinforcements to Flaminius by the other consul Cn. Servilius, is cut off by Hannibal; upon which Q. Fabius Maximus is created dictator, and M. Minucius Rufus master of the horse; Hannibal after meeting with a slight check before Spoletum, advances along the coast of the Adriatic as far as Apulia. To avert the anger of the gods a sacred spring is proclaimed at Rome, and temples vowed. XI-XVIII. Fabius, on assuming the command, advances along the Latin way, and comes in sight of the enemy at Arpi, but steadily refuses a pitched battle. Hannibal now crosses over into Samnium, and ineffectually tries to bring on an engagement: he is surrounded by the Roman army but escapes by a clever device. The policy of the commander-in-chief is violently opposed by the master of the horse. Fabius, still adhering to his cautious tactics, follows Hannibal into Apulia, but is obliged to return to Rome, leaving the master of the horse in command. XIXXXII. Meanwhile in Spain Cn. Scipio completely defeats the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal in a naval action at the mouth of the Iberus, and is also successful on land. P. Scipio now arrives in Spain and joins his brother; by treachery they set free the Spanish hostages of Hannibal who were imprisoned in the citadel of Saguntum. XXIII-XXX. Fabius is very unpopular at Rome, and the master of the horse after gaining some slight successes sends word that he has gained a great victory: upon which a law is passed on the motion of the tribune M. Metellus for equalizing the authority of the dictator and the master of the horse: the bill is supported by C. Terentius Varro, the son of a butcher, and according to Livy a violent demagogue. Minucius brings on an engagement, is in great danger, but relieved by Fabius. Overcome with remorse the master of the horse again places himself under the orders of the dictator. XXXIXXXVII. Meanwhile Cn. Servilius gains some slight successes on the


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