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C. CORNELII TACITI
A N N A L E S.
Chap. 1. The choice of a wife for the emperor divides the freedmen into par
ties; Lollia Paullina, Julia Agrippina, and Ælia Petina, are rival candidates -2. Claudius deliberates with Narcissus, Callistus, and Pallas-—3. Agrippina, the emperor's niece, preferred by the interest of Pallas; Vitellius, the censor, moves the senate that all intermarriages between the uncle and niece shall be declared lawful; a decree passes for that purpose—7. On the day of the marriage Silanus kills himself ; Calvina, his sister, is banished out of Italy; Seneca recalled from exile by the influence of Agrippina; her reasons for it—9. Octavia, the emperor's daughter, promised in marriage to Nero, Agrippina's son–10. Deputies from Parthia, desiring that Meherdates may be sent from Rome to be king of that country; Meherdates set out accordingly; he gives battle to Gotarzes, and is conquered; death of Gotarzes ; Vonones succeeds to the crown of Parthia, and soon after him Vologeses--15. Mithridates tries to recover the kingdom of Pontus; he is defeated and sent to Rome; his unshaken fortitude, and behavior to the emperor~-22. Lollia Paullina condemned to banishment by the intrigues of Agrippina; her death in exile; Calpurnia punished. but not with death—23. The city enlarged by Claudius; the ancient boundaries, with an account of enlargements from time to time-25. Nero adopted by Claudius ; Agrippina, to increase her fame, establishes a colony among the Ubians, at the place of her birth; the Cattians ravage and plunder the country; they are subdued-29. Vannius, king of the Suevians, driven fronı his kingdom; lands allotted to him and his followers in Pannopia—31. Publius Ostorius conmands in Britain ; his victory over Caractacus; Cartismandua delivers Caractacus into the hands of the Romans ; he is sent to Rome; his fortitude, and his speech to Claudius; pardon granted to him, his wife, and his brothers—39. Ostorius dies, worn out in the service ; Aulus Didius sent into Britain to take on him the command---4). Nero puts on the manly gown before the regular age ; Britannicus slighted, and by the arts of Agrippina postponed to Nero; the attendants and tutors of Britannicus removed from his person, and new men appointed by Agrippina –43. Portents and prodigies at Rome; the people distressed by a dearth of corn; the impolicy of depending for corn on Egypt and Africa 44. War between the Iberians and Armenians; the Parthians and Romans Tac. II.
involved in the quarrel; Rhadamistus sent by his father Pharasmanes, king of Iberia, to his uncle Mithridates, who reigns over the kingdom of Armenia ; the treachery of Rhadamistus; by his father's orders he wages war against Armenia; Mithridates besieged in a fortress under the command of Cælius Pollio, the governor of the garrison ; the venality of Pollio; Mithridates betrayed by him, and murdered by Rhadamistus-52. Furius Scri. bonianus driven into exile ; the mathematicians driven out of Italy–53. A decree against women intermarrying with slaves; Pallas rewarded as the author of this regulation-54. Tranquillity restored in Judæa; Felix, the brother of Pallas, escapes unpunished, notwithstanding bis misconduct, and Cumanus punished for the whole—55. Commotions among the Clitæans quelled by Antiochus—56. Claudius exhibits a naval engagement on the Jake Fucinus; a pass made through a mountain; the work ill executed at first, and completed afterwards; Narcissus blamed by Agrippina—58. Nero pleads for the inbabitants of Ilium, and other cities-59. Statilius Taurus accused by Tarquitius Priscus; the latter expelled the senate in spite of Agrippina-60. The jurisdiction of the imperial procurators esta. blished in the provinces ; observations on that subject–61. An exemption from taxes granted to the isle of Coos, and to the city of Byzantium a remission of tribute for five years—64. Portents and prodigies ; Doinitia Lepida, the aunt of Nero, for endeavoring to ingratiate herself with her nephew, accused by the artifice of Agrippina ; Narcissus endeavors to save her, but in vain; she is condemned to die-66. Claudius taken ill; he removes to Sinuessa ; Agrippiaa prepares a plate of poisoned mushrooms ; Xenopbon, the physician, puts a poisoned feather down the throat of the emperor, under pretence of making him vomit—68. Britannicus detained in the palace by Agrippina while Nero is proclaimed emperor by the army; the senate approve, and decree divine honors to the memory of Claudius.
Years of Rome.
These transactions passed in six years.
Pomponius Longinus Gallus, Quintus
Caius Antistius Vetus, M. Suillius
Claudius, 5th time, S. Cornelius Or.
P. Cornelius Sylla Faustus, L. Salvius
Otho Titianus. 53
Decimus Junius Silanus, Q. Haterias
Marcus Asinius Marcellus, Manius
1. [A.U.C. 801. J.C. 48.] CÆDe Messalinæ convulsa Principis domus, orto apud libertos certamine, quis deligeret uxorem Claudio, coelibis vitæ intoleranti,, et conju
• Intoleranti] This is illustrated by mansurum se in cælibatu ; ac nisi perSuet. Clayd. 26. After the death of mansisset, non recusaturum con todi Messalina, Claudius confirmavit pro manibus ipsorum. Nec durare valuit concione apud prætorianos, quatenus quin de conditionibus continuo tractasibi matrimonia male cederent, per. ret, etiam de Petinæ, quam olim exe
gum imperiis obnoxio. Nec minore ambitu foeminæ exarserant ; suam quæque nobilitatem, formam, opes contendere, ac digna tanto matrimonio ostentare. Sed maxime ambigebatur inter Lolliam Paullinam, M. Lollii consularis filiam, et Juliam Agrippinam, Germanico genitam : huic Pallas, illi Callistus, fautores aderant: at Ælia Petina, e familia Tuberonum, Narcisso fovebatur. Ipse modo huc, modo illuc, ut quemque suadentium audierat, promtus, discordantes in consilium vocat, ac ‘promere sententiam, et adjicere rationes’ jubet.
2. Narcissus vetus matrimonium, familiam communem,' (nam Antonia ex Petina erat) nibil in penatibus ejus novum,' disserebat, ' si sueta conjux rediret, haudquaquam novercalibus odiis usura in Britannicum et Octaviam, proxima suis pignora.' Callistus 'improbatam longo discidio, ac si rursus adsumeretur, eo ipso superbam; longeque rectius Lolliam induci, quando nullos liberos genuisset, vacuam æmulatione, et privigniss parentis loco futuram.'
At Pallas id maxime in Agrippina laudare, quod • Germanici nepotem secum traheret, dignum prorsus imperatoria fortuna; stirpem nobilem, et familiæ Claudiæ quæ posteros conjungeret ;' nec foemina,' expertæ foecunditatis, integra juventa, claritudinem Cæsarum aliam in domum ferret.'
3. Prævaluere hæc, adjuta Agrippinæ inlecebris ; quæ
gerat, deque Lolliæ Paullinæ, quæ Nero. St. C. 93. Caio Cæsari nupta fuerat. Verum ille- « Ælia Petina) Formerly married cebris Agrippinæ, Germanici fratris to Claudius, but divorced for light sui filiæ, per jus osculi et blanditia- causes of offence. St. C. 104. rum occasiones pellectus in amorem, • Antonia] Daughter of Claudius subornavit proximo senatu, qui cense- and Ælia Petina. St. C. 105. ret cogendum se ad ducendum eam s Britannicum et Octavium) Born uxorem, quasi reipublicæ maxime in- of Claudius and Messalina." St. C. teresset: dandamque ceteris veniam 108. 36. talium conjugiorum, quæ ad id tem- 8 Et privignis] Antonia, Britannipus incesta habebantur. Ac vix uno cus, and Octavia. interposito die, coufecit nuptias : non * Germanici nepotem] Nero, afterrepertis, qui sequerentur exemplum, wards emperor. St. C. 35. excepto libertino quodam, et altero • Posteros conjungeret] The children primipilari, cujus officium nuptiarum of Claudius, Antonia, Britannicus, et ipse cum Agrippina celebravit.' and Octavia, the posterity of the This is a long extract, but it was ne- Claudian family, were united with the cessary to give us an insight into the son of Agrippina; nor did the greatmanners of the emperor and the age. ness of the Cæsars pass into another
Lolliam Paullinam) For her and family. her immense wealth, see St. C. 89. k Fæmina) Agrippina.
Juliam Agrippinam] Mother of