« IndietroContinua »
the absence of a great, industrial, middle class, as a result of the employment of slave labor. But in tracing it ultimately to riches, Sallust has gone straight to the root of all the evil. 27. rapere, cōnsūmere historical infinitives, agreeing with iuventus understood.
28. pudōrem and pudicitiam, as well as dīvīna and (29) hūmāna, are to be taken with habēre prōmiscua, 'to regard with indiference'; translate, they respected neither modesty nor chastity, nor things human or divine.' 29. nihil, etc.: 'they did not care a straw for anything, nor did they exercise any self-control whatever.' 30. domōs: the article under domus, in Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities (page 547 with cut on page 548), not only contains a detailed description of Roman houses, but has a most interesting account of Sallust's house. villās: read Pliny's description of his Tuscan villa in his Letters, V, 6. 31. cognoveris : why subjunctive? See references to consulueris, 1, 14.
Page 9. 1. illi: 'men of old'; (3) hĩ: 'men of the present age'; this, therefore, is only an apparent violation of the more natural use of ille to denote the former' and hic the latter.'
2. victis: what case? B. 188, d; A. 229; H. 428, 2; G. 347, 5. praeter iniuriae licentiam: besides the power of doing harm.' 4. sociis: the unscrupulous plundering of the allies not only enriched the governors of the provinces, but produced enormous revenues, which were distributed among the city plebs and became the chief cause of its idleness and shiftlessness. 5. proinde, etc.: exactly as if to inflict injury were the only aim in exercising authority'; notice that an infinitive phrase iniuriam facere is the subject of esset, while another, imperiō ūtī, is in the predicate. 6. esset: B. 307, 1; A. 312; H. 584; G. 602.
§ 13. Men squandered their property in wild extravagance, and being thoroughly unscrupulous, resorted to crime in order to obtain the means by which they might continue to indulge in their luxurious habits.
8. ā privātīs: Xerxes, king of Persia, had cut a canal for his ships through Mt. Athos, and had bridged the Hellespont for the passage of his army in his memorable expedition against Greece; but even private citizens of Rome had levelled mountains' and 'built over seas. For instance, L. Lucullus, whom Pompey derisively called Xerxes togātus, 'the Roman Xerxes,' cut through hills to construct
fish ponds, so as to have fresh fish at all times for his table; he also carried moles far out into the sea, on which to build his villas. Pompey himself supplied his fish ponds with salt water by cutting through the hills between them and the sea. The remains of ancient villas may still be seen beneath the water at Baiae, a favorite resort of the Romans, not far from Naples.
11. per turpitudinem turpiter, corresponding to the adverb honestē; another form of the variety of expression of which Sallust is so fond. 13. mulierēs, etc.: women publicly offered their chastity for sale.' 14. terrä marīque omnia exquirere: e.g. they obtained peacock from Samos, tunny fish from Chalcedon, oysters from Tarentum, nuts from Thasos, dates from Egypt, etc. dormire: see following note on frigus. 15. famem: when already gorged with food, they took emetics prescribed by physicians to make room for other courses. sitim: thirst was produced by inducing perspiration. frīgus neque lassitudinem repeated baths made them cool, and at the same time brought on a feeling of weariness and longing for sleep. 19. eō, etc.: 'on this account the more excessively did they plunge into every kind of money-getting and extravagance.'
Catiline's associates and crimes; his plans for the consulship. Sections 14-16.
§ 14. 21. In tantā tamque corruptā cīvitāte: by his sketch of the gradual corruption of Roman morals (§§ 6-13), Sallust has prepared the reader to understand that the conspiracy of Catiline was not only possible, but was the natural outgrowth of the times. 22. flagitiōrum atque facinorum: the meaning here is not, as it is generally, 'disgraceful acts and crimes' (see 9, 26), but is transferred to persons guilty of such deeds, viz. 'profligates and scoundrels'; flagitium aut facinus is a favorite combination with Cicero, too. 24. patria: an adjective agreeing with bona.
Page 10. 13. dum dum modo, as in 4, 5. 14. quae. frequentābat: why is the indicative used in a subjunctive clause
Page 9. 1. tōtā Ītaliā: when may in be omitted? B. 228, 1, b; A. 258, f, 2; H. 483, 1; G. 388.
with an accusative and infinitive sentence? B. 314, 3; A. 336, 2, b; H. 643, 3; G. 628, R. (a). 15. parum, etc.: 'had little regard for decency.' 17. compertum foret: in the subjunctive, because the reason assigned, viz. that any one had actually discovered it to be true, is denied, magis quam quod being equivalent to nōn quod. B. 286, 1, b; A. 321, R.; H. 588, 2; G. 541, 2.
§ 15. 19. cum virgine nōbili: her name is not known. sacerdote Vestae: this was Fabia, the half-sister of Terentia, Cicero's wife. The trial resulted in an acquittal. If a Vestal virgin was convicted of having broken her vow, she was beaten and then immured alive. In all there were six Vestals. They were always dressed in white. Their duties were to keep the fire burning in the temple of Vesta, and to offer prayers and perform sacrifices to the goddess. In public they were attended by a lictor and had precedence over the highest magistrates; they were given a seat of honor at the public games; their persons were sacred; lastly, they were accorded the distinction of a burial in the Forum. They were appointed before they were 10 years of age, and might retire from the priesthood after 30 years of service; very few of them, however, availed themselves of this privilege. 20. huiusce: Sallust adds the intensive particle -ce to hic in the genitive case only, and chiefly in the phrase huiusce modī.
Page 11. 3. necātō fīliō: this crime is probably alluded to in the vague suggestion made below by Cicero, 10, 12, aliō incrēdibili scelere. vacuam domum: note the corresponding phrase in Cicero. 6. neque vigiliīs neque quiētibus: neither at times of wakefulness nor in sleep'; cf. the English midnight watches.'
Page 10. 1. Iam vērō: 'Then again.' 2. illecebra: notice the use of the same word by Sallust in 10, 7. In another oration Cicero admits that Catiline's extraordinary magnetism won him the friendship of many illustrious men; see Pro Caeliō, V. 5. impellendō and adiuvandō : practically equivalent to impellēns and adiuvāns, the ablative case of the gerunds having very little significance. 10. asciverit: the perfect subjunctive following a secondary tense is regularly used in negative clauses of result to denote a simple act without regard to its continuance; the imperfect is used for a continued act. 11. Quid vērō: 'But further.' What differences do you observe between the historical and oratorical style, as shown in the parallel passages from Sallust and Cicero ?
7. ita, etc.: 'his conscience so excited and harassed his mind.' 8. colōs: sc. erat; the copula is frequently omitted by Sallust.
§ 16. 12. fidem vilia habēre: 'to hold cheap their honor, fortune, peril'; this infinitive phrase is the object of imperābat, being in the same construction as mãiōra alia. What is the usual construction with imperāre in the best prose? (Caesar and Cicero rarely use the passive infinitive or a deponent with imperare, but never, as in this case, the active infinitive.) 14. Note that imperābat occurs between two historical infinitives, commodare and circumvenire, and in the same connection; to what mood and tense, therefore, is the historical infinitive equivalent? To what other tense is it sometimes equivalent ? sī causa, etc.: if for the time being there was no motive for committing crime.'
15. însontīs sīcuti sontīs: 'the inoffensive as well as those who had offended him.' 17. potius . . . erat: 'he preferred to be.' 19. aes aliēnum: several efforts had been made before to relieve the condition of the debtor; as e.g. under the Licinian laws, B.C. 367. But, as Sallust has shown in §§ 12 and 13, the debtors were no longer honest peasants, vainly struggling against the hard times caused by incessant warfare, but reckless debauchees who might even be persuaded to become traitors to their country, if by so doing their debts might be wiped out under a new régime.
20. Sullānī mīlitēs: Sulla confiscated large tracts of land in Etruria, Latium, and Campania, and allotted them to his veterans. largius suō ūsī: 'after squandering their money.' 22. opprimundae rei publicae: at this time, B.C. 64, Catiline evidently did not anticipate the necessity of seizing the government by force of arms. He merely expected to secure for himself and his followers "the spoils" of the consulship, and, as governor in the succeeding year, to be able to plunder some rich province. 23. in extrēmīs terrīs: having conquered Mithridates (B.c. 66–65), in 64, Pompey was occupied in annexing Syria as a Roman province. plural, though referring to rēs.
26. ea: neuter
Meeting of the conspirators in June, B.C. 64. Section 17.
§ 17. 28. appellare: sc. Catilina.
Page 11. 2. tanti facinoris immānitās =facinus tantae immānitātis.
Page 12. 1. opēs suās: 'his own resources." 4. quibus, etc.: 'whose necessities were most urgent, and who (therefore) were utterly reckless.' 5. senātōriī ōrdinis: all Romans who held curule magistracies, or even the quaestorship, thereby became senators. Theoretically, this gave every citizen an opportunity of securing the much coveted honor of a seat in the Senate; but practically it was limited to the favored few. For the Senate controlled the elections to such an extent as to almost invariably insure the choice of its own candidate; and these candidates were naturally from the senatorial families. Hence, notwithstanding a republican form of government, there arose in Rome the powerful senatorial order, forming a proud and exclusive nobility. In dress the senators were distinguished by the broad purple stripe — lātus clāvus — on their tunics, and, if they had held a curule magistracy, by the purple shoe — mulleus.
5. P. (Cornelius) Lentulus Sūra had been consul in 71, but in the next year had been expelled from the Senate on account of his profligacy. By his election to the praetorship for 63, he regained his place in the Senate. P. Autronius (Paetus): a schoolmate of Cicero, and quaestor in the same year with him. 6. L. Cassius Longīnus was praetor in 66, and was one of Cicero's competitors for the consulship of 63. C. Cethegus had already distinguished himself in the war with Sertorius by his reckless attempt to assassinate Q. Metellus Pius. P. et Ser. Sullae: Sullae is plural, because it belongs to both Publius and Servius (as though we should say, Henry and John Browns). These were sons of Servius Sulla, the brother of the dictator. 7. L. Varguntēius: nothing is known of him except that he had been tried for bribery.
8. ex equestrī ōrdine: in early Roman times, when it was accounted a privilege to be a cavalryman, none but those whose property amounted to 400,000 sesterces ($17,000) or more could serve in the cavalry. Later, when the Romans had no cavalry of their own, levying it all from their allies, the term equites was still applied to nonpatricians whose property was rated in the census as worth at least 400,000 sesterces. These men often succeeded in amassing immense fortunes in business or by speculation. But they had little political influence until C. Gracchus, in B. c. 123, carried a measure providing that the iūdicēs should be selected from the equites instead of the nōbilēs. This at once arrayed them as a class against the senatorial party; and from this time forth, as a moneyed aristocracy, they possessed considerable power in Roman politics, forming a middle class