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number volunteered to assassinate Cicero. But the latter was apprised of their intention and prevented the attack.

On November 8th, after taking unusual precautions against an uprising, Cicero convoked the Senate in the temple of Jupiter Stator. Catiline actually had the audacity to be present. Then Cicero, in fierce indignation at the man's effrontery, burst forth with what has been called his First Oration against Catiline. The facts which Cicero presented in regard to the conspiracy were so conclusive that Catiline thought it wise to leave Rome that very night, and hasten northward to the force which his lieutenant Manlius had gathered at Faesulae in Etruria. On the following morning, November 9th, Cicero addressed the people in the Forum in his Second Oration, exulting in the fact that the arch-conspirator had withdrawn from the city.

Toward the close of November, news came that Catiline had joined Manlius, whereupon the Senate declared them both enemies of the state and directed Antonius to suppress the insurrection. At about the same time, Cicero appeared as counsel for L. Licinius Murena in a trial for bribery at the last consular election, and delivered a witty and effective speech, known to us as Pro Mūrēnā Ōrātio.

Meanwhile the conspirators in the city had not been idle. In their desire to get help from every source, they even dared to approach some ambassadors from the disaffected Allobroges, who had come to Rome to seek aid from the Senate. These men, although sorely tempted, finally informed Cicero, and were directed by him to pretend to join the plot, and to obtain, if possible, written proof against the conspirators. This they succeeded in doing, and in consequence five of the leaders were arrested and thrown into prison. On the same day, December 3d, Cicero delivered his Third Oration to the people, giving them the latest information concerning the plot.

There were rumors next day that violence would be employed in freeing the five prisoners. On December 5th, therefore, Cicero assembled the Senate in the Temple of Concord to decide what should be done in the case. At first the sentiment seemed to be in favor of putting them to death immediately, on the ground that they were dangerous traitors to the state. Caesar, however, when his turn came to speak, boldly declared that it was unconstitutional to inflict capital punishment on Roman citizens without allowing them to appeal to the people; he therefore favored life imprisonment for the conspirators. His speech produced a strong impression on the Senate. When it became evident that Caesar's motion might prevail, Cicero delivered his Fourth Oration, in which he claimed that as proven traitors the prisoners could no longer be called Roman citizens, and hence did not come under the provision of the law. He therefore urged that they be immediately sentenced to death. This oration partially turned the tide; but it was left for Cato, in a most powerful and eloquent speech, to finally persuade the Senate that the death penalty was demanded by the danger of the impending crisis. The execution of the prisoners took place immediately, and proved a death-blow to the conspiracy in the city.

For several weeks afterward, Catiline marched hither and thither in the Apennines, seeking to avoid the armies sent against him. At last, in January, B.C. 62, finding his retreat cut off in every direction, he met the legions of Antonius in battle near Pistoria. He and his followers fought desperately against an overwhelmingly superior force, but were finally defeated and slain to a man.



108. Birth of Catiline. 73. Catiline is tried for incest with the Vestal, Fabia. 68. Catiline praetor. 67. Catiline propraetor in Africa. 66. In the summer Catiline returns to Rome, but, being charged with

extortion, is not permitted to be a candidate for the consul

ship. In December he conspires with Piso and Autronius to murder

the consuls.
65. Jan. 1st. The plot fails.

Feb. 5th. A second attempt is unsuccessful.
Toward the end of the year Catiline is brought to trial for extor-

tion, but is acquitted. 64. Catiline forms another plot, and calls a meeting of the conspira

tors in June. Cicero and Antonius are elected consuls, defeating Catiline and

four other candidates. 63. Catiline is again a candidate for consul.

In July the Senate assembles to consider Catiline's seditious

speech, and decides to postpone the consular election. At the meeting next day Catiline defies the Senate, but escapes

with a mild rebuke. The election results in Catiline's defeat. Catiline continues his secret preparations, but Cicero is kept

informed of them through Curius and Fulvia.
Oct. 21st. The Senate meets and takes vigorous measures to

protect the state.
Oct. 27th. Manlius raises the standard of rebellion in Etruria.
Nov. 6th. The conspirators meet at the house of Laeca.
Nov. 7th, Attempt to murder Cicero.

B.C. 63 (continued).

Nov. 8th. Cicero delivers his First Oration against Catiline

before the Senate. Catiline leaves the city at night. Nov. 9th. Cicero delivers his Second Oration before the people. Toward the close of November the Senate declares Catiline and

Manlius to be public enemies, and commissions Antonius to

lead an army against them. Dec. 2d. Volturcius and the ambassadors of the Allobroges

leave Rome at night and are arrested. Dec. 3d. Arrest of the chief conspirators at Rome. Meeting

of the Senate. Cicero delivers his Third Oration before the

people. Dec. 4th. Rumors of plans to rescue the conspirators. Dec. 5th. Meeting of the Senate, at which Cicero delivers his

Fourth Oration against Catiline. The conspirators are con

demned and executed. 62. January. Battle of Pistoria, in which Catiline is defeated and




1. Omnis hominēs, qui sēsē student praestare cēteris animālibus, summā ope nītī decet, nē vītam silentio trānseant veluti pecora, quae nātūra prāna atque ventri oboedientia finxit. Sed nostra omnis vīs in animo et corpore sita est; animī imperio, corporis servitio magis 5 ūtimur; alterum nobīs cum dīs, alterum cum bēluīs commune est. Quo mihi rēctius vidētur ingenī quam vīrium opibus gloriam quaerere, et, quoniam vīta ipsa, quā fruimur, brevis est, memoriam nostrī quam māxumē longam efficere. Nam dīvitiārum et formae gloria fluxa 10 atque fragilis est, virtūs clāra aeternaque habētur.

Sed diū māgnum inter mortālis certāmen fuit, vīne corporis an virtüte animi rēs militāris magis procēderet. Nam et prius quam incipiās consulto et ubi consulueris mātūrē facto opus est. Ita utrumque per sē indigēns 15 alterum alterius auxilio eget.

2. Igitur initio rēgēs nam in terrīs nõmen imperī id primum fuit – divorsi pars ingenium, alii corpus exercēbant; etiam tum vīta hominum sine cupiditāte agitābātur, sua cuique satis placēbant. Posteā vērā 20 quam in Asia Cyrus, in Graeciā Lacedaemonii et Athēniēnsēs coepāre urbīs atque nātiānēs subigere, lubīdinem dominandī causam bellī habēre, māxumam gloriam in māxumo imperio putāre, tum demum periculo atque

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