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fraus, fraudis, f., fraud, loss; sine fraude, without punish


frequēns, -entis, [FRAG, cram], adj., in large numbers, in full session.

frequentia, -ae, [frequens], f.,

full attendance.

frequentō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [frequēns], frequent, frequently visit.

frētus, -a, -um, [FRE, hold],

adj., with abl., depending on, relying upon.

frīgus, -oris, [FRIG, freeze], n., cold.

frōns, frontis, f., (forehead), front.

fructus, -ūs, [FRVG, enjoy], m.,

fruit, reward, advantages. frumentum, -1, [FRVG, enjoy], n., grain.

fruor, -1, fructus sum, [FRVG,

enjoy], with abl., enjoy. frūstrā, adv., in vain, to no purpose.

fuga, -ae, [FVG, flee], f., flight, escape.

fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitūrus,

[FVG, flee], flee, escape. fugitīvus, -a, -um, [FvG, flee],

adj., fugitive, runaway. Fulvia, -ae, f., mistress of Q. Curius, through whom Cicero was constantly informed of the plans of the conspirators. Fulvius, -a, name of a Roman gens:

(1) M. Fulvius Nōbilior, of
the equestrian order, was a
follower of Catiline.
(2) A. Fulvius, a senator's
son, was caught on his way
to join Catiline's army at

Faesulae, and was put to death by order of his father.

fundō, -ere, fūdī, fūsus, [FVD, pour], rout.

für, fūris, [FER, carry], m., thief.

furibundus, -a, -um, [FVR, rage], adj., furious, raving. furiōsus, -a, -um, [furia, rage],

adj., furious, raging. Furius, -ī, m., name of a Roman gens; P. Furius was a Catilinarian conspirator who tampered with the Allobroges. furor, ōris, [furō, rage], m., fury, frenzy, madness. futurus, see sum.


Gabīnius, -a, name of a Roman gens; P. Gabinius Capitō, of the equestrian order, was one of the most prominent of the Catilinarian conspirators. Gaius, abbreviated C., a Roman forename.

Gallia, -ae, [Gallus], f., Gaul, divided into:

(1) Gallia Citerior, Hither or Cisalpine Gaul, in northern Italy.

(2) Gallia Ulterior or Transalpīna, Farther or Transalpine Gaul, including modern France, Holland, Belgium, and the western parts of Germany and Switzerland. Gallicānus, -a, -um, [Gallicus], adj., Gallic.

Gallicus, -a, -um, [Gallus], adj., of Gaul, Gallic. Gallus, -a, -um, adj., of Gaul,

Gallic; as noun, Gallus, -ī, | grātus, -a, -um, [GRA, favor], m., a Gaul.

gānea, -ae, f., gluttony.

adj., pleasing, acceptable, gratifying.

gāneō, -ōnis, [gānea], m., glut- gravis, -e, [GRAV, heavy], adj.,


gaudium, -ī, [GAV, glad], n.,

joy, rejoicing.

gēns, gentis, [GEN, beget], f., clan, house, gens, consisting of a number of families descending from a common ancestor; tribe, people, nation. genus, -eris, [GEN, beget], n.,

race, family, birth; class, sort, kind, description, rank. gerō, -ere, gessi, gestus, [GES, carry], manage, carry on, wage; accomplish, do, perform; rēs gestae, achievements, history. gladiator, -ōris, [gladior, fight

with the sword], m., gladiator, cut-throat, ruffian. gladiatorius, -a, -um, [gladiator], adj., gladiatorial. gladius, -ī, m., sword.

glōria, -ae, f., glory, fame, re

nown, distinction. glōrior, -ārī, -ātus sum, [glōria], boast, brag.

Graecia, -ae, f., Greece.
Graecus, -a, -um, [гpackós], adj.,

Greek; as noun, Graecus, -ī,
m., a Greek.

grandis, e, adj., large, great, heavy.

gratia, -ae, [grātus], f., favor, influence; favoritism, partiality; gratiam facere, be lenient; grātiā, preceded by gen., on account, for the sake. gratuitō, [gratuitus, without pay], adv., for nothing, with no particular object.

heavy, weighty, of weight, serious; severe, bitter. graviter, [gravis], adv., severely; seriously, deeply. gregārius, -a, -um, [grex], adj., (of the herd), common. grex, gregis, m., (herd), company, band; grege facto, in a body.

gula, -ae, [GVL, swallow], f., throat, neck; laqueō gulam frangere, strangle.


habeō, -ēre, -ui, -itus, [HAB, have], have, hold, keep, detain, possess, occupy; include, imply; treat, use, manage, maintain, govern; esteem, regard, consider; exercise, practise, be characterized by; render, cause, produce; ōrātiōnem habere, deliver an address; vitam habēre, live ; sēsē habēre, be; gravius habēre, take more seriously; reliqui habēre, have left; nihil pēnsī habēre, have not the slightest regard for; curae habēre, be mindful of, be zealous for; in spē habēre, hope for, expect; in promptu habēre, be ready to display; in incertō habere, be uncertain; prō certō habēre, be assured; id quod res habet, and it is certainly a fact. haesitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, be at a loss, hesitate.

haruspex, -icis, [HAR, twist + SPEC, see], m., (inspector of the entrails of victims), soothsayer, diviner. haud, adv., modifying a single word, not, not at all, by no


haud-quäquam, adv., by no means, not at all. haveō, -ēre, —, —, [AV, desire], be safe, be happy, be well; imperative, farewell. hebēscō, -ere, —, —, [inceptive

from hebeō, be blunt], become dull, decline.

hesternus, -a, -um, [HES, yesterday], adj., of yesterday, yesterday's.

hic, haec, hōc, gen., hūius, [1,

this one-ce], dem. pron., pointing to that which is near the speaker, this, these; the present, of the present age; the following; he, she, it, they; ille . . . hic, the former the latter; ad hoc, in addition to this, besides, more


hic, [1, this one +-ce], adv., here, in this place; here, now, on this point. hīce, haece, hōce, gen., huiusce,

older form of hic, haec, hōc. Hispania, -ae, [Hispanus], f., Spain, including Hispania Citerior and Ulterior, north and

honestē, [honestus], adv., honorably; virtuously, with chastity; parum honestē habēre, have too little regard for. honestō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [honestus], honor, dignify. honestus, -a, -um, [honōs], adj., honorable.

honōs or honor, '-ōris, m., honor, dignity; public honor, office. horribilis, -e, [horreō, bristle], adj., frightful, terrible, horrible.

hortor, -ārī, -ātus sum, [freq. from (old) horior, urge], urge, encourage, exhort, appeal to.

hospes, -itis, m., host; guest; guest friend.

hostilis, -e, [hostis], adj., of an


hostis, -is, [(G)HAS, hurt], m.

and f., enemy (of the state). Cf. inimicus, personal enemy. hūc, [(unused) hoi, dat. of hic + -ce], adv., to this. hūmānus, -a, -um, [homō], adj., of man, human. humus, -i, f., ground.


iactō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [freq. from iacio, throw], (toss); sē iactare, strut about, swagger, make a display.

south respectively of the Hibe-iam, adv., now; often including

rus (Ebro).

Hispānus, -a, -um, adj., Spanish; as noun, Hispānus, -ī, m., a Spaniard.

homō, -inis, [cf. humus], m. and f., man (as a human being); cf. vir, a male.

a look backward, already, or forward, presently, at once; moreover; iam tum, now by that time, even so long ago; iam pridem, long since, long ago; iam vērō, furthermore, then again.

iānua, -ae, f., outer door, en- | ille, illa, illud, gen. illius, dem.

trance door from the street. Iānuārius, -a, -um, [Iānus], adj., of January, January. ibi, [1, this one + locative ending -bī], adv., there; in these things.

īdem, eadem, idem, gen. ēius-
dem, [1, this one +-dem, dem.
suffix], dem. pron., the same;
likewise, also.
idōneus, -a, -um, adj., suitable;
deserving; serviceable (with

pron., referring to that which is remote, that; he, she, it; the other; the ancient; the well known, the famous; ille . . hic, the former . . . the latter. illecebra, -ae, [in + LAC, entangle], f., enticement, allurement, alluring arts. illiciō, -ere, -lēxī, -lectus, [in + lacio, entice], with ad, entice, allure.

im-, see in- in composition. imbecillus, -a, -um, adj., weak. imberbis, -e, [in+barba, beard], adj., beardless.

imbuō, -ere, -buī, -būtus, steep, stain.

igitur, [for agitur, the point is], conj., (contrary to the best usage, Sallust puts igitur first in the sentence, except in questions), therefore, then, imitor, -ārī, -ātus sum, imitate, accordingly; after a digrescopy after. sion, well then, as I was say-immānitās, ing.

īgnārus, -a, -um, [in + gnārus,

-ātis, [immānis, monstrous], f., enormity, monstrosity.

knowing], adj., with gen., un- | im-minuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus, dimin

acquainted with, a stranger to, inexperienced with. ignavia, -ae, [ignāvus], f., inactivity, indifference, apathy, shiftlessness; cowardice. īgnāvus, -a, -um, [in+(g)nāvus, busy], adj., sluggish, listless, spiritless; shiftless, worthless, cowardly, dastardly. ignobilis, -e, [in + (g)nōbilis], adj., of low birth, base-born, ignoble.

īgnōminia, -ae, [in+(g)nōmen],
f., disgrace.

īgnōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [īgna-
rus], not know, have no knowl-
ignōscō, -ere, īgnōvī, īgnōtus,
[in (g)nōscō], with dat.,
pardon, forgive, overlook.

ish; impair, infringe.

im-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus,

(send against), instigate. immō, adv., with vērō, nay rather.

im-moderātus, -a, -um, adj., un

restrained, inordinate, exces-
sive, outrageous.
im-mortālis, -e, adj., immortal,

im-mūtō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, change,
alter, transform.
im-parātus, -a, -um, adj., un-

prepared, off one's guard. impediō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, [in + PED, tread], with nē, hinder, obstruct, prevent.

im-pellō, -ere, -puli, -pulsus, with acc. and ad or ut, urge on, impel, induce.

im-pendeō, -ēre, —, —, [pendeō,
hang], with dat., overhang,
impend, threaten.
imperator, -ōris, [imperō], m.,
commander, general; ruler.
imperium, -ī, [imperō], n., com-
mand, order; authority, con-
trol, rule, power; supreme

noun, impudicus, -ī, m., profligate, debauchee. impūnitās, -ātis, [impūnis, un

punished], f., freedom from punishment, impunity. im-pūnītus, -a, -um, [pūnītus, part. of pūniō, punish], unpunished.

power, sovereignty, dominion, im-pūrus, -a, -um, [pūrus,

pure], adj., unclean,
stained, guilty.

empire; office; military authority. imperō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [in +īmus, see inferus.

parō], command, give an order; rule, govern; be master; require.

impertiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, [in + partiō, share], with dat., bestow upon.

impetus, -ūs, [in + PET, fly], m., with in and acc., attack, assault.

im-pius, -a, -um, [pius, dutiful], adj., impious, wicked, abandoned.

im-plōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [plōrō, cry out], appeal to, invoke, entreat, implore.

im-pōnō, -ere, -posui, -positus,

with acc. and dat., put upon, lay upon, fasten upon, impose upon; set over, appoint over. importūnus, -a, -um, adj., (un

suitable); unrelenting, cruel, inhuman.

im-probus, -a, -um, adj., unprincipled, wicked, depraved, outrageous.

im-prōvīsus, -a, -um, [prōvīsus, part. of provideō], adj., unforeseen; de imprōvīsō, on a sudden, suddenly, unexpectedly.

im-pudicus, -a, -um, [pudicus, modest], adj., unchaste; as


in, prep. with acc. and abl.:
(1) With the acc., of motion,

into, to; within, in, at;
upon, on, against, in re-
gard to; towards, for;
among; of time, until; in
dies, daily, each day; in
praesēns, for the time be-
; in rem esse, be useful,
serve one's purpose; in ur-
bium modum, on the scale
of cities.

(2) With the abl., of place, in,
within, upon, on, at, among;
of time, during, at the time
of, amid; in the case of, in
relation to; in mediō, un-
expectedly; in prīmīs, espe-
cially; (among the foremost,
56, 13).

in- in composition, often changed to il- before 1, to im- before b, m, p, and to ir- before r; in, into, on, upon, against; un-, in-, not.

inānis, -e, adj., empty, vacant,

in-cēdō, -ere, -cessi, -cessus, ad-
vance, march forward, make
advance; come upon, fall upon,
take possession of.
incendium, -1, [in + CAND, glow],

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