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fraus, fraudis, f., fraud, loss; sine fraude, without punishment.

frequēns, -entis, [FRAG, cram], adj., in large numbers, in full session.

frequentia, -ae, [frequēns], f., full attendance.

frequentō, -are, -āvī, -ātus, [frequēns], frequent, frequently


frētus, -a, -um, [FRE, hold], adj., with abl., depending on, relying upon.

frīgus, oris, [FRIG, freeze], n.,


frōns, frontis, f., (forehead), front.

fructus, -ūs, [FRVG, enjoy], m., fruit, reward, advantages. frumentum, -1, [FRVG, enjoy], n., grain.

fruor, -1, fructus sum, [FRvg, enjoy], with abl., enjoy. frustra, adv., in vain, to no purpose.


fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitūrus, [FVG, flee], flee, escape. fugitīvus, -a, -um, [FVG, flee],

adj., fugitive, runaway. Fulvia, -ae, f., mistress of Q. Curius, through whom Cicero was constantly informed of the plans of the conspirators. Fulvius, -a, name of a Roman gens:

(1) M. Fulvius Nōbilior, of the equestrian order, was a follower of Catiline.


Gabinius, -a, name of a Roman gens; P. Gabinius Capitō, of the equestrian order, was one of the most prominent of the Catilinarian conspirators.

fuga, -ae, [FVG, flee], f., flight, Gaius, abbreviated C., a Roman

(2) A. Fulvius, a senator's son, was caught on his way to join Catiline's army at

Faesulae, and was put to death by order of his father.

fundō, -ere, fūdī, fūsus, [FVD, pour], rout.

für, fūris, [FER, carry], m.,

furibundus, -a, -um, [FVR, rage],
adj., furious, raving.
furiōsus, -a, -um, [furia, rage],

adj., furious, raging.
Furius, -ī, m., name of a Roman
gens; P. Furius was a Catili-
narian conspirator who tam-
pered with the Allobroges.
furor, ōris, [furō, rage], m.,
fury, frenzy, madness.
futurus, see sum.

[blocks in formation]

Gallic; as noun, Gallus, -ī, grātus, -a, -um, [GRA, favor], m., a Gaul. adj., pleasing, acceptable, gratifying.


gānea, -ae, f., gluttony. gāneō, -ōnis, [ganea], m., glut- gravis, -e, [GRAV, heavy], adj., vy, weighty, of weight, serious; severe, bitter. graviter, [gravis], adv., severely; seriously, deeply. gregārius, -a, -um, [grex], adj.,

(of the herd), common. grex, gregis, m., (herd), company, band; grege facto, in a body.

gaudium, -1, [GAV, glad], n., joy, rejoicing.

gēns, gentis, [GEN, beget], f.,

clan, house, gens, consisting of a number of families descending from a common ancestor; tribe, people, nation. genus, -eris, [GEN, beget], n.,

race, family, birth; class, sort, kind, description, rank. gerō, -ere, gessi, gestus, [GES, carry], manage, carry on, wage; accomplish, do, perform; rēs gestae, achievements, history. gladiator, -ōris, [gladior, fight with the sword], m., gladiator, cut-throat, ruffian. gladiātōrius, -a, -um, [gladia

tor], adj., gladiatorial. gladius, -ī, m., sword.

glōria, -ae, f., glory, fame, renown, distinction.

glōrior, -ārī, -ātus sum, [glōria],
boast, brag.

Graecia, -ae, f., Greece.
Graecus, -a, -um, [гpaιкós], adj.,
Greek; as noun, Graecus, -ī,
m., a Greek.

grandis, -e, adj., large, great,

grātia, -ae, [grātus], f., favor, influence; favoritism, partiality; gratiam facere, be lenient; gratia, preceded by gen., on account, for the sake. grātuītō, [gratuitus, without pay], adv., for nothing, with no particular object.

gula, -ae, [GVL, swallow], f., throat, neck; laqueō gulam frangere, strangle.


habeō, -ēre, -ui, -itus, [HAB,
have], have, hold, keep, de-
tain, possess, occupy; include,
imply; treat, use, manage,
maintain, govern; esteem, re-
gard, consider; exercise, prac-
tise, be characterized by;
render, cause, produce; ōrā-
tiōnem habere, deliver an ad-
dress; vitam habere, live;
sēsē habēre, be; gravius ha-
bēre, take more seriously;
reliqui habere, have left; ni-
hil pēnsī habēre, have not the
slightest regard for; curae
habēre, be mindful of, be zeal-
ous for; in spē habēre, hope
for, expect; in prōmptū ha-
bēre, be ready to display; in
incertō habere, be uncertain;
prō certō habere, be assured;
id quod res habet, and it is
certainly a fact.
haesitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, be at a
loss, hesitate.

haruspex, -icis, [HAR, twist + SPEC, see], m., (inspector of the entrails of victims), soothsayer, diviner.

haud, adv., modifying a single word, not, not at all, by no


haud-quaquam, adv., by no means, not at all. haveō, -ēre, —, —, [AV, desire], be safe, be happy, be well; imperative, farewell. hebēscō, -ere, —, —, [inceptive from hebeō, be blunt], become dull, decline.

hesternus, -a, -um, [HES, yesterday], adj., of yesterday, yesterday's.

hic, haec, hōc, gen., hūius, [1, this one + -ce], dem. pron., pointing to that which is near the speaker, this, these; the present, of the present age; the following; he, she, it, they; ille . . . hic, the former

the latter; ad hoc, in addition to this, besides, more


hic, [1, this one + -ce], adv., here, in this place; here, now, on this point.

hīce, haece, hōce, gen., huiusce, older form of hic, haec, hōc. Hispania, -ae, [Hispānus], f., Spain, including Hispania Citerior and Ulterior, north and south respectively of the Hiberus (Ebro). Hispanus, -a, -um, adj., Spanish; as noun, Hispānus, -ī, m., a Spaniard.

homō, -inis, [cf. humus], m. and f., man (as a human being); cf. vir, a male.

honestē, [honestus], adv., honorably; virtuously, with chastity; parum honestē habēre, have too little regard for. honestō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [ho

nestus], honor, dignify. honestus, -a, -um, [honōs], adj., honorable.

honōs or honor, '-ōris, m., honor, dignity; public honor, office. horribilis, -e, [horreō, bristle], adj., frightful, terrible, horri ble.

hortor, -ārī, -ātus sum, [freq. from (old) horior, urge], urge, encourage, exhort, appeal to.

hospes, -itis, m., host; guest; guest friend.

hostilis, -e, [hostis], adj., of an enemy.

hostis, -is, [(G)HAS, hurt], m. and f., enemy (of the state). Cf. inimicus, personal enemy. hūc, [(unused) hoi, dat. of hīc

+-ce], adv., to this. hūmānus, -a, -um, [homō], adj., of man, human. humus, -ī, f., ground.


iactō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [freq. from iacio, throw], (toss); sē iactare, strut about, swagger, make a display. iam, adv., now; often including

a look backward, already, or forward, presently, at once; moreover; iam tum, now by that time, even so long ago; iam pridem, long since, long ago; iam vērō, furthermore, then again.

iānua, -ae, f., outer door, en- | ille, illa, illud, gen. illius, dem. trance door from the street. Iānuārius, -a, -um, [Iānus],

pron., referring to that which is remote, that; he, she, it; the other; the ancient; the well known, the famous; ille... hic, the former . the latter. illecebra, -ae, [in + LAC, entangle], f., enticement, allurement, alluring arts. illiciō, -ere, -lēxī, -lectus, [in + lacio, entice], with ad, entice,


adj., of January, January. ibi, [1, this one + locative ending -bī], adv., there; in these things.

idem, eadem, idem, gen. ēiusdem, [1, this one +-dem, dem. suffix], dem. pron., the same; likewise, also.

idōneus, -a, -um, adj., suitable; deserving; serviceable (with dat.).

igitur, [for agitur, the point is], conj., (contrary to the best usage, Sallust puts igitur first in the sentence, except in questions), therefore, then, imitor, -ārī, -ātus sum, imitate, accordingly; after a digres- copy after. sion, well then, as I was say-immānitās, -ātis, [immānis, ing. monstrous], f., enormity, monīgnārus, -a, -um, [in + gnārus, strosity.

knowing], adj., with gen., un-im-minuō, -ere, -ui, -ūtus, dimin

acquainted with, a stranger to,
inexperienced with.

īgnāvia, -ae, [īgnāvus], f., in-
activity, indifference, apathy,
shiftlessness; cowardice.
īgnāvus, -a, -um, [in+(g)nāvus,
busy], adj., sluggish, listless,
spiritless; shiftless, worthless,
cowardly, dastardly.
ignobilis, -e, [in + (g)nōbilis],
adj., of low birth, base-born,

īgnōminia, -ae, [in+(g)nōmen],

f., disgrace.

īgnōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [īgnārus], not know, have no knowledge.

ignōscō, -ere, īgnōvī, īgnōtus, [in (g) nōsco], with dat., pardon, forgive, overlook.

im-, see in- in composition. imbecillus, -a, -um, adj., weak. imberbis, -e, [in+barba, beard], adj., beardless.

imbuō, -ere, -buī, -būtus, steep, stain.

ish; impair, infringe. im-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, (send against), instigate. immō, adv., with vērō, nay rather.

im-moderātus, -a, -um, adj., un-
restrained, inordinate, exces-
sive, outrageous.
im-mortālis, -e, adj., immortal,

im-mūtō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, change, alter, transform.

im-parātus, -a, -um, adj., un

prepared, off one's guard. impediō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, [in +

PED, tread], with nē, hinder, obstruct, prevent. im-pellō, -ere, -puli, -pulsus, with acc. and ad or ut, urge on, impel, induce.

im-pendeō, -ēre, —, —, [pendeō, hang], with dat., overhang, impend, threaten. imperator, -ōris, [imperō], m.,

noun, impudicus, -ī, m., profligate, debauchee.

impūnitās, -ātis, [impūnis, unpunished], f., freedom from punishment, impunity.

commander, general; ruler. imperium, -ī, [imperō], n., com-im-pūnītus, -a, -um, [pūnītus, part. of pūniō, punish], unpunished.

mand, order; authority, control, rule, power; supreme power, sovereignty, dominion, empire; office; military authority.

imperō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [in + parō], command, give an order; rule, govern; be master; require.

impertiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, [in + partiō, share], with dat., bestow upon.

impetus, -ūs, [in + PET, fly], m., with in and acc., attack, assault. im-pius, -a, -um, [pius, dutiful], adj., impious, wicked, abandoned. im-plōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [plōrō, cry out], appeal to, invoke, entreat, implore.

im-pōnō, -ere, -posui, -positus,

with acc. and dat., put upon, lay upon, fasten upon, impose upon; set over, appoint over. importūnus, -a, -um, adj., (unsuitable); unrelenting, cruel, inhuman.

im-probus, -a, -um, adj., unprincipled, wicked, depraved, outrageous.

im-prōvīsus, -a, -um, [prōvīsus, part. of prōvideō], adj., unforeseen; dē imprōvīsō, on a sudden, suddenly, unexpectedly.

im-pudicus, -a, -um, [pudicus, modest], adj., unchaste; as

im-pūrus, -a, -um, [pūrus, pure], adj., unclean, sinstained, guilty. imus, see inferus. in, prep. with acc. and abl.: (1) With the acc., of motion, into, to; within, in, at; upon, on, against, in regard to; towards, for; among; of time, until; in diēs, daily, each day; in praesēns, for the time being; in rem esse, be useful, serve one's purpose; in urbium modum, on the scale of cities.

(2) With the abl., of place, in, within, upon, on, at, among; of time, during, at the time of, amid; in the case of, in relation to; in mediō, unexpectedly; in prīmīs, especially; (among the foremost, 56, 13).

in- in composition, often changed to il- before 1, to im- before b, m, p, and to ir- before r; in, into, on, upon, against; un-, in-, not.

inānis, -e, adj., empty, vacant, unoccupied.

in-cēdō, -ere, -cessi, -cessus, ad

vance, march forward, make advance; come upon, fall upon, take possession of. incendium, -ī, [in + CAND, glow],

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